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A car GAZ-24 «Volga» 

«Volga» GAZ-24 - Soviet passenger car of middle class, serially produced at the Gorky automobile plant with 1970по 1985.
Since 1956, the GAS issue a car «Volga» GAZ-21 and its modifications. At the time of its appearance, the GAZ-21 was very modern car and was pretty close the original construction and design solutions. However, by the beginning of the 1960s he was out of date - first of all, in terms of design.
Background
Since 1956, the GAS issue a car «Volga» GAZ-21 and its modifications. At the time of its appearance, the GAZ-21 was very modern car and was pretty close the original construction and design solutions. However, by the beginning of the 1960s he was out of date - first of all, in terms of design.


Development
In 1961, work has begun on the creation of a car to replace the GAZ-21. General designer - A. M. Nevzorov, designers - L. And. Циколенко and N. And. Kireev.
The car was originally designed for different types of engines - the modernized four-cylinder from the GAZ-21, the newly developed three-liter V6, available in the production of V8 from GAS-23, as well as the four-cylinder in-line diesel engine.
From 1962 to 1965 was built up to six of clay search of models, very different in their appearance. By 1965, the appearance of the car as a whole formed, mainly the extreme end, and the development of aggregate parts.
The new model required a higher total production culture, therefore, in parallel with the development of the car was performed modernization of the technological equipment of the plant, on its territory there were erected new, modern equipped workshops.
Technical features of the project
From a technical point of view the machine it represented a considerable step forward compared with the previous model, although development was not revolutionary, but evolutionary.
Important innovations were:
four fully synchronized on transfers of the forward gearbox;
гидровакуумный amplifier (licensed copy of the node Girling PowerStop) and divider circuits in the brake system;
wheels brake mechanisms with automatic adjustment;
wrought iron beam front suspension;
improved heating compartment with a blow of the rear glass;
double chamber carburetor (the modifications from карбюраторным engine);
14-inch wheel disks;Drive Parking brake at the rear wheel (in the GAZ-21 was quite unreliable transmission Parking brake);
u-shaped side Windows.
Significantly decreased the number of lubrication points of the chassis. Power elements of the body have become stronger, and the body of the tougher due to the permanently welded (and not screwed, as the GAZ-21) of the hind wings. For painting of bodies was used more resistant synthetic enamel brand ML. Were in the car and archaic features: for example - шкворневая front and leaf rear suspension, drum brakes for all wheels.
The main and the most principal difference from the previous model was the bodywork, differing not only the design, but also of General ideology and the most fully incorporates all the new, what has come into the world practice of automotive industry in the period 1955-1965 years. The principal difference of the body GAZ-24 of the body of GAZ-21 is significantly lower height of the first (1490 mm against 1620 mm). Decrease in overall height was one of the main trends of car industry in those days, and was not only cosmetic nature - the height of the body to a large extent determined the layout of the vehicle. Lower the car had a low set the center of gravity, which increased the stability and control - especially at high speeds. Passengers in the lower car less shakes on the roads. Lower the roof also provided a more rational accommodation of passengers in the vehicle and better aerodynamics at the expense of reduction of миделевого (largest) cross-section of the body, etc.
Due to the lowering of the seat cushions space in the passenger compartment is almost not affected, above the front seats of the place was even more due to the use of flat-panel roof. Himself the salon has become wider (although the width of the machine as a whole did not change), due to the rectangular part of the vehicle width the interior was almost the same throughout the length. (In the GAZ-21, on the contrary, salon significantly narrowed in the front and rear parts.) Waistline GAZ-24 below, than at GAS-21, a roof rack and scope of the doors were thinner, making it possible to substantially increase the area of glazing and, consequently, to make the cabin more light, improve visibility (especially through the side glass). Visibility ago was significantly improved, despite the thicker rear of the rack roof, because the dimensions (especially width) of the rear window had been increased considerably.
However, the layout there were the following disadvantages, and the typical not only for the «Volga», but also for the majority of cars of her generation. In particular:
With a simple lowering of the roof without changing proportions and angles doorway was quite low, making it difficult to landing in the car - for this had to pretty much bend (at the later cars were applied strongly inclined and curved side Windows, which allowed to increase the size of the door opening on the diagonal, without increasing the height of the vehicle);Big length of необозреваемой the driver of the area in front of the car. Необозреваемая zone of 0,95 m, while according to GOST maximum value was 0.8 m. However, it should be noted that in this case the driver from his seat could see the corners of all the four wings of the car (four-fender visibility), which facilitates the «sense of machines», especially when Parking, and in those days it was considered a great advantage;
Unsuccessful layout of the Luggage compartment. As the sidewall of the vehicle was significantly lower, significantly decreased and the level of the trunk lid, and due to the greater the length of the rear overhang and rectangular lines has increased its depth. As a result of the trunk turned though theoretically large in volume (700 liters), but the deep and low, so that access to the front wall was difficult. Unsuccessful was the location and the spare wheel is flat on the bottom of the Luggage compartment, dictated by the small height of the last. Also, the loading height of the trunk was too big.
However, despite the shortcomings, the layout of the body GAZ-24 was an important step forward in comparison with GAZ-21 and for its time, proved to be quite successful.
In the rest of the body of the GAS-24 has inherited all the positive features of its predecessor:
the hood is conveniently opened in the course of the car and held in the open position spring-loaded hinges;
the boot lid is easily opened due to the horizontal торсионам and kept them in the open position.
And the boot lid in the original design was located more conveniently and was more reliable and easier to handle (for example, the trunk lock GAZ-21 with утапливаемой button easily opened a hammer-blow). The Declaration of the two rear rows of seats were easily transformed into the Luggage compartment of a large volume with a flat floor. Strength, and therefore the durability of the body has increased significantly due to the stronger elements of the load-bearing structure, permanently welded hind wings, mud flaps of wings, the guards of the radiator, the top panel and etc., all of which together formed a solid welded design.

Running prototypes
In 1966 there were the first running prototype, called M-24 (the previous model of the plant - GAS-M-23 on the basis of GAS-M-21), the prototypes were collected in two variants of the design front, two and четырехфарном, in the series went, as it is known, двухфарная machine. Different from the first production car prototypes did not have.
The idea of a six-cylinder engine, as well as from the regular installation of the automatic gearbox had to be abandoned, in a series of car went with the two versions of the engine - the 2.5-liter I4 and ICPC-4 or a 5.5-liter V8 and automatic transmission-3. However, parallel to serial release of model of the plant were built a few prototypes with import-cylinder engines, as in-line engines, and V-shaped.Various diesel engines (mainly Peugeot-Indenor, sometimes Mercedes) were mounted on small-series of export of cars as by the GAS-om, as well as foreign companies - dealers of the plant, there were both four - and six-cylinder variants.
In 1967 Автоэкспортом somewhat prematurely announced the start of production of the new Soviet of the car. Mass production began a few years later.

Staging to production
In 1968, was collected on the bypass technology pilot batch in 32 of the machine, in the next year gathered more 215 machines, at the end of the year launched a conveyor. On July 15, 1970 issue of the GAZ-21 stopped; the only model, produced from this time became a GAZ-24.
On the issue of «Volga» GAZ-24 significantly was upgraded twice - in 1976-1978 and 1985-1987. On amendments to design changes in the production of GAZ-24 can be divided into three parts according to the introduced plant material changes in the appearance and design. This division is conditional and the plant is not used.

The first series of
GAZ-24 of issue 1968-1977 years conditionally can be singled out as the first generation, or, according to the terminology accepted in relation to «Victory» and GAZ-21 - the first of a series GAZ-24.
Distinctive features of all the cars of «first» series - bumper without tusks, but with chrome walls, plate number plate under the front bumper, separate from the rear lamps cat's eyes on the back panel of the body, the instrument panel with in a black leather substitute the upper part and painted the color of the body bottom, black with inserts under the ivory handle on the instrument panel, finishing panels of the door with a vertical figure, front seat of the диванного type of three parts with independent adjustment and Central armrest.
The car is constantly subjected to minor improvements. In particular, until 1975: removed from the design of the cooling system of the engine automatic clutch fan operation, have shown the unreliability of their work; change the form of the external rear-view mirrors; set a new, more user-friendly and reliable the trunk lock, steel install new springs with a parabolic profile sheets; the ignition switch unified with cars VAZ; speedometer original design (tape) replaced the traditional dial, more durable; on the rear of the rack roof installed the Parking lamps, inflammable when the output of passengers, etc.

«Second series»
Over the years 1976-78 was followed by the first serious modernization of the GAS-24, which is the beginning of the release of the second generation, or the second series GAZ-24.
In these years, the car has received the «teeth» on the bumpers, front fog lights in the front bumper, the rear lights with built-in cataphotes, salon with a modified design, in which practically all metal parts for security were closed soft plastic covers, interior door panels with horizontal drawing, static safety belts in the front and rear, which would require the removal of the armrest of the design of the front seats), a new seat upholstery; there were other, more minor changes.
In this form the machine was produced before 1985, with a minimum of upgrades.


«The third series of» (GAS-24-10)
Тhe mid-1980s, the machine was again subjected to upgrade at this time - the more significant and radical. The result is a model of GAS-24-10, which can be called the third-generation, or a third of a series of GAS-24.
The introduction of the modernized units and this time took place gradually - from plastic grille, appeared on the export cars in the late 1970s, before the end of the update wagon, which occurred in 1987. In 1985, they released the «transition» version of sedan, reconciling in different proportions features of GAZ-24 and 24-10 and received an informal designation of GAS-24M.
Earlier, in 1982, the series was launched car " GAZ-3102 " to serve the public institutions (was in development since 1976), uses seriously revised bodywork, engine, transmission and suspension of GAS-24 - he became the father of the family cars «Volga», which was on the conveyor belt until recently.
GAS-24-10 was produced until 1992, after which it was replaced in the production program for GAS-31029, in fact, representing an aggregates of GAS-24-10 in the updated package on the basis of body model GAZ-3102.


Technical characteristics:
Body type Sedan
Number of doors 4
the number of places 5
the length of 4735 mm
the width of 1800 mm
Height 1476 mmTrack front 1496 mm
Track rear 1428 mm
The clearance of 174 mm
Curb weight of the vehicle 1400 kg
Tire size 205/70 R14
The size of the disk 5.5J x 14

The engine GAS 24-10 2.4
The location of the engine in the front, longitudinal
The volume of the engine 2445 cubic cm.
Number of cylinders 4
The number of valves per cylinder 2
Injection Carburetor
Maximum power of 100 HP. 
Recommended fuel AI-92
Diameter of turn 9.9 m
Rear Drive
No. of gears (fur box 4) 
Type front suspension coil spring
Type rear suspension Spring

The braking system of the GAS 24-10 2.4:
Front brake Drum
Rear brake Drum

Exploitation of GAS 24-10 2.4
Fuel tank capacity of 55 l.
The maximum speed of 150 km/h
The consumption of fuel for highway 10 l/100km
Fuel consumption in the city of 15 l/100km

The review of main modifications:
GAS-24-01, выпускавшаяся with 1970-1971 year to work in a taxi. Powered by дефорсированным engine ZMZ-24-01, a special mark of the body of type «shashechki», the lantern green «free», the interior of the leather, allowing the sanitary disposal; instead of the receiver - the taxi meter.
GAS-24-02, выпускавшаяся serially in 1972-1986 years with a five-door body type of a wagon.
GAS-24-03, sanitary on the basis of GAS-24-02
GAS-24-04, with a five-door body of the wagon for work in a taxi. Powered by дефорсированным engine ZMZ-24-01, a special mark of the body of type «shashechki», the lantern green «free», the interior of the leather, allowing the sanitary disposal; instead of the receiver - the taxi meter on the basis of GAS-24-02GAS-24-07, выпускавшаяся in years 1977-1985 for work in a taxi, was equipped with gas-cylinder unit.
GAS-24-24, a version for the special services, the so-called «догонялка» or «escort vehicle», was equipped with a modified power unit of GAZ-13 «Chayka» - engine ZMZ-2424, V8, 5,53 l, 195 BHP and the three-speed automatic transmission and hydraulic booster of steering control. Had reinforced the body and chassis. Maximum speed of up to 170 km/h. (On other data - more than 200 km/h)
GAS-24-54, pravorulnaya the export version (released less than 1000 copies).
GAS-24-76 and 24-77, vehicle sets sedan and station wagon, respectively, for Belgium under the equipment of the firm Scaldia-Volga diesel Peugeot Indenor.
GAS-24-95 - pilot-wheel modification, created with the use of units of GAS-69, a characteristic feature of the design - the lack of a frame. In the beginning of 1974, issued 5 pieces, one copy of the serviced L. And. Brezhnev in hunting Zavidovo; the second for some time remained in the design Bureau of GAS. The rest of the machines have been distributed to agencies in Gorky and the region - the regional Committee of the party, the military, and the police; to this day preserved two of the machine - завидовская and обкомовская.
There are also such modifications, as четырехдверные front convertibles and light trucks/vans. It's not the products of the plant GAS: convertibles made in a very small amount for military parades in the districts Бронницкий military car repair plant, vans and pickup trucks - civil ремзаводы of conventional sedans and universals. 

Sources: 

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