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The car GAZ M-20 «Pobeda».

The«victory» - the Soviet car, produced in series at the Gorky automobile plant in 1946-1958 years. Factory model index - GAS-M-20.
The first Soviet passenger car with suspension of body and one of the first in the world крупносерийно produced with a body fully pontoon type - without projecting wings and their rudiments, running boards and headlights.
On June 28, 1946, there was started a serial output of cars «Victory». All were released 235.999 machines, including 14.222 cabriolets and 37.492 taxis. 
The silhouette of the car hewn out of the stone monument of her designer - Andrey Alexandrovich Липгарта (1898-1980).


Background
After the great Patriotic war, the GAS temporarily resumed production of pre-war cars models - GAZ-11-73, representing a modernized version of the outdated GAS-M-1, the construction of which in turn went to the car Ford B model 1934. This car as a whole is outdated: the biggest criticism caused guzzler engine, gearbox without synchronizers, the mechanical drive brake, outdated appearance, mediocre smooth running and the absence of the trunk.

The initial period of
Government task for the design of the new passenger car Gorky automobile plant received in February 1943, however, it is considered, that by the time the plant has already been drawn up promising character of the post-war model range, including " and «passenger cars» of the middle class.

The first search sketches
Аccomplished artist In. Brodsky in 1943, on their machine already has the same waiting pontoon-priced and the body «fastback» with sloping rear wall, as the future continuous «Victory», but otherwise it is not like and visually more archaic, executed in the style of the late thirties design extremities of the body - in particular, with a tiny grille semicircular section; V-shaped windshield complemented by small bits of glass on the sides, as on a number of foreign models; rear doors are hung up on the rear hinged and opens in motion.
The final but the car was developed in the works of the artist-designer Benjamin Samoilov.
Initially the car was designed under the GAZ-25 and the slogan «Motherland»; - they were later replaced by the usual «twenty» and the word «Victory».When it created a car «Pobeda», from domestic automobile plants have not been established emblems, so literally for each model were created their original nameplates. On the pedestal of «Victory» towered the letter «M»in which at the same time you could see the hint of the merlon the Kremlin of Nizhniy Novgorod and steaming Cup of tea - a symbol of the VolgaRiver. The very same letter indicated the name of the «Молотовец» (from the beginning of the 30's and up to the end of the 50-s of the plant bore the name of the people's Commissar In. M. Molotov). The official name of the machine was recorded as GAS-M-20 - «Молотовец, twentieth model». Fill emblems, of course, was red - the color of the banner of the USSR.
Assigned it number «20» to reflect a car belongs to a new line of models of the Gorky automobile plant with engines smaller, in comparison with the pre-war patterns of work - in the future it continued to моделиГАЗ-21 and GAZ-24, in contrast to the многолитражных passenger models, which the designation is started with the units of the GAS-11, GAZ-12 «ZIM», GAZ-13, GAZ-14 «Chaika».
Originally designed in two versions, six - and четырехцилиндровая, the latter for a taxi, but later it was decided to leave only четырехцилиндровую version as a cost-effective - the situation with the fuel in the post-world war the country was difficult. Here is one of the main shortcomings of the «Victory» - the lack of capacity of the engine, the same as the four-cylinder GAS-M-1, and a significantly smaller compared with the serial GAZ-11-73 (the upgraded version of «Emka» with a six-cylinder engine of GAS-11, 76 - 85 HP), produced shortly before and for some time after the war. Nevertheless, compared to the most common in those years, the GAZ-M-1 was to have achieved a significant improvement in fuel economy (that is quite natural, as well as the working volume of the engine has decreased from 3.5 up to 2.1 liters).
As the main features of the pledged at this stage in the project «Victory», it can be noted: «бескрылый» carrying the body with sloping rear wall; a modern, at the time, the layout of the levels of the floor and roof of the body have been significantly reduced, and the power unit is put into the space above the front axle; нижнеклапанный engine is much improved, compared with GAS-M-1, construction, and with almost twice as much power efficiency with one liter of displacement, independent spring front suspension; hydraulic drive of the brake; V-shaped front windshield and bent back; significantly improved the decoration and equipment of the interior.


Comparison with foreign analogues
Received in the years of the great Patriotic war of the rich experience of operation and maintenance of a variety of foreign automotive equipment, mainly the captured German origin and coming under the lend-lease of the American, allowed the Soviet designers «on full-scale copies of the» get acquainted with the latest achievements of the global automotive industry. And both Germany and the United States were in those years, the recognized leaders in the field of production of cars. Long operation of foreign samples allowed to allocate constructive solutions, the most suitable for the specific road, operational and climatic conditions of the Soviet Union. In the light of that experience were formed technical job, and was the design of the first Soviet post-war models of both freight and passenger cars.In the design of the nodes of the chassis (first of all, independent front suspension) and the power of the bottom of the «Victory» were used as a prototype design elements of the German car «Opel Капитен» of 1938, although they are directly copied were not.
The engineers of the plant GAS (and even more - from other enterprises) had no experience in the development of carriers (безрамных) of bodies and modern pendants, meanwhile, it was quite clear that these elements of the design are almost mandatory in the post-war cars. «Opel» was at the time one of the most progressive car in its class, have shown themselves strong and sturdy carrying the body and independent spring front suspension. In addition, in the course of combat actions was captured many captured cars of this model; there was a big experience of their operation and maintenance.
«Opel» by the time was the European branch of the American company GM and, in General, showed the American approach to design cars. Were well known to the creators of the «Victory» and the American model of the pre-war years. All this, of course, to a large degree influenced by the constructive and stylistic design of «Victory» architecture and тектонику her body.
But in General, the «Victory» was though and made with the orientation to the American school, but to a large degree «европеизированной» - a much smaller in size, with an engine of a humble working volume and simplified finish. Significantly smaller sizes and is totally different plastic solution for both sides of the body (such as «pontoon»), the original findings of the designer in the finishing and detailing gave a «Victory» is completely different visual perception compared with the mass of the American of the last pre-war and the first post-war car. Similar to a «Victory» of the body-«floats» were widespread in the United States after its launch in the series, and in Europe - even later.
It should be noted that the body of the «Victory» was the first fully designed and prepared for mass production in the USSR - up to this, even in the developed relatively independently of the model (for example, KIM-10) tooling for the production of ordered foreign, mainly American firms. For the model of the ZIS-110 snap produced in the USSR, but it was not fit for mass production, so as stamps were cast from zinc-aluminum alloy and could withstand only a limited number of operating cycles.And from the point of view of design and layout of the «Victory» is several years ahead of many foreign analogues of the first post-war years, the structure and design of which ascended even to the pre-war models. In addition to the original «wingless» form, her body was different and small, according to the times, height, respectively, significantly changed the distribution of mass, decreased the height of the centre of gravity, roof line, belt line (respectively, the increased area of glazing), a line of gender and the level of the seat cushions. The engine in this case was put forward, in the space above the bar, independent front suspension, which also helped to make the hood of the car and the car in General below. For 1946 (the beginning of the release «Victory») this pattern can be described as good. It made it possible to more efficiently locate the passengers in the back, to improve the sustainability and controllability of the car due to lower centre of gravity and significantly reduce the aerodynamic resistance of the air, thanks to the reduction of миделевого cross-section of the body, reduce the shaking in the passenger compartment when driving on the roads of poor quality due to the reduction of the height of the seat cushions on the road.
The majority of foreign firms have come to such a decision on the mass models later, say, the English Standard " in 1948 model year; in the United States - Kaiser in 1947 model year (production started in 1946 calendar, almost simultaneously with the «Victory»), Hudson and Packard - in 1948 model year, Nash, Ford and Chevrolet - in 1949. Moreover, this transition was assessed in those years as a revolutionary and was accompanied by an active advertising campaign.
Thus, taking advantage of the early stage of the work on the car of experience of foreign producers, Gorky designers subsequently managed to create not only unique, but also advanced for its time design.


Technical features
For the car provided for the two variants of the engine - six - and four-cylinder. The first was a modification of the engine GAS-11, in its turn, the former license analogue of the American motor model Dodge D5, the license for the production of which was acquired plant back in 1937. Working volume was 2.7 liters (the GAS-11 - 3,485 l.), capacity - 62 HP. The four-cylinder engine has been executed on the same constructive basis, but shortened by two cylinders and have reduced to 2,112 L. working volume. Its capacity amounted to 50 HP.
The four-cylinder engine was more cost-effective and have a greater degree of unification with the GAS-11, followed thereafter by truck GAS, that is why he was given preference.
The three-stage gearbox was originally performed on the basis of the boxes GAS-M-1, and had no synchronizers (their functions are partially performed the so-called «coupling easy insertion»). The lever was a floor. In the early 1950s brought a box of shift from ZIM with подрулевым lever and clock generators on the II and III programmes.The front suspension was carried out on the basis of the unit Opel Капитен», changes from the original are not too numerous, and reflected mainly in strengthening and simplification of the technological design. Shock absorbers with the levers, threaded bushings and some other parts of the hangers are interchangeable, while the design of шкворневого node varies greatly.
The rear suspension was executed in the traditional for those years of the scheme (type Hotchkiss) - with longitudinal springs and rigid beam bridge, unlike the archaic rear axle with reactive tube (Torqu Hotchkisse tube), resting in the bronze ball on the transmission and through him transmitting the power unit longitudinal forces from the rear axle, characteristic for the «Emka» and the first post-war «Ford» (until 1948). Shock absorbers, as and to the front, were lever hydraulic.
The wheels had unusually large for those years width and had stamped disks without holes, held five nuts on the studs with разболтовкой 5×5 1/2", that is, 5×equal to 139.7 mm (American system, going back from the first car GAS).
The braking system for the first time in domestic practice the mass model was performed hydraulic. No servos or separators circuits was not provided for. The brakes were a drum, with one hydraulic cylinder in each brake drum, effective immediately on both the brake pads.
Wiring system was performed 12-volt, while in those years very many cars still used more than a capricious 6-volt wiring. Range of electrical equipment in comparison with the previous models of GAS has increased considerably.
For the first time in the domestic car of this class is provided as a standard equipment passenger compartment heater (starting with the second production series), paired with a blow of the windshield. Fan heater gave only the air to the windshield, in the salon as he walked by gravity, which considerably reduces the efficiency of heating.
At the same power of the engine, that of the four-cylinder GAS-M-1 - 50 h.p., «Victory» has developed the same maximum speed that and six-cylinder, 76-a strong GAS-11, but with a uniform movement has spent a total of 10 liters of fuel per 100 km of the road - to 15 l/100 km for GAS-11 and 13 l/100 km for M-1, which is achieved at the expense of more аэродинамичной shape of the body and its reduced frontal area. The car was much nicer than the previous one, with more than three times more mild spring independent suspension at the front and advanced forward passenger cabin, located in the zone of the greatest comfort - low between the axles. Low centre of gravity and an independent front suspension combined with a practically ideal distribution of the mass of the vehicle on the axes (51 % rear, 49 % front) also significantly improved manageability. The more rational location of passengers and cargo allowed to increase the volume of the passenger compartment with 2,84 to 3,38 cubic meters, despite the reduction of the dimensions of width and height in comparison with the «emkoy», and also - for the first time enter the trunk, though not very large - a big part of it was occupied by the spare wheel and driver's tool.Running prototypes
Prototypes of the «Victory» were built in the years 1944-1945 under the designation of GAS-25. They had a number of significant differences from the follow-up of serial production vehicles: they had a «three-storey» radiator grille with two moldings of the first «floor», reaching under the front position lamps, which had a more complex form; the front wings were composed of two parts - the wing and the spacers between him and the front door; the wheels were used from GAS-M-1.
On a wooden full layout of the rear doors were set of hanging on the rear hinge and brought forward as at a later GAZ-12 «ZIM». The built later prototypes door porches on the front of the hinges, and the rear edges to cover the front of the rear wheel arches. From the chrome trim on the sidewall, which was at some demonstration mock-UPS, also refused.
In 1945, after a long test run jointly with domestic and foreign counterparts (mainly, the same «Опелями» - see not shown on the right) prototypes «Victory» were demonstrated in the Moscow higher party leadership.
For serial production was chosen the cheaper and more economical four-cylinder version, and model designation finally stuck as - «Pobeda M-20. It should be noted that later six-cylinder car based on the M-20 still went to the small series under the name of M-20 G/ M-26, but the engine was different - 90-strong from GAZ-12 «ZIM», increased in comparison with the prototypes of the «Victory» of the working volume of 3,5 liters.


Staging to production
The first cars of the brand «Victory», descended from the conveyor on June 28, 1946. But these cars have been «green», had a lot of constructive and technological shortcomings and were made largely on the bypass technology. In 1946 collected only 23 of the machine, mass production began in the spring of 1947. In April 1947 Stalin already demonstrated production of the car. In the photo, dated February 1948, the Assembly line going thousandth of a «Victory» (already with 2-storey bars, but with the rims of headlamps under the color of the body, but not in chrome, as in the 2-series). Only 1 of the series to August (according to other data, October), 1948 managed to collect 1700 cars, have disadvantages. After the short-term cessation of the production of designers and engineers managed to fix most of the discovered shortcomings.With 1948-1949 year from the pipeline began to go a modernized version of the «Victory», and since November 1, 1949 production was fulfilled in the new, fully equipped buildings, dramatically increasing the scale of production (usually it is considered that the production after the stop in October 1948 resumed in November 1949, but in the «Report on the state tests», dated January 1949, States that «Victory» is issued with the heater on November 1, 1948, and the decision on the improvement of its quality is mentioned with the date of August, not October 1948; in the instruction of the Ministry of defense, signed in print June 1949, also it says on configuration of the heater, and the end of the 1 series is dated August 1948; in August 1949 on the testing of the atomic bomb used 10 new «Victories», then a new car handed to academician Hariton; instructions to «Victory» of the 1951 indicates that the new springs are placed with the October 1948, and the new thermostat - since October 1949; all this puts into question the accepted version to stop production since October 1948 on November 1, 1949; furthermore, in 1949, was released 45 thousand cars, that without the accounting of the production of «Victory» the entire year is not arranged, so as to the beginning of the 1950 «Muscovites» produced only 10 thousand. (for 3 years), and only then their production rapidly grew in the times, and Crises and GAZ-67 for all the time it was released less; most likely, by the end of 1948 issue resumed on the old Assembly line, gradually introducing changes : at the beginning of 1949 updated the machine shown in the Kremlin and told the chief that the heater «now put on all the machines», and in November 1949 issue moved into the new building for the new pipeline, about what and wrote «the Truth»), as issued to the cars were returned to the factory for elimination of defects.
In 1949, the car GAZ M-20 and its creators were awarded the Stalin prize.
In 1950 a new gearbox with lever control on the side of the steering shaft and synchronized top gears.


Overview of the modifications

Basic modification
GAZ M-20 «Pobeda» (1946-1954) - the first (1946-1948) and the second (from 1 November 1948, received heater, ventilation windscreen, from October 1948 new springs of the parabolic cross-section, from October 1949 the new thermostat, from 1950 a new, more reliable hours; from November 1, 1949 was going to the new pipeline; since October 1950, has received a new box of transfers from the Winter with a lever on the steering wheel and around the same - a new water pump) series; the body of the sedan-фастбек engine, 4-cyl. 50 h.p., since 1955. - 52 HP. (GAZ M-20), mass series (184 285 ind., on. GAS-20V, about 160 thousand of all modifications to the M-20V).
GAZ-M-20V (1955-1958) - the upgraded «Victory», the third series, the engine 52 HP, the new design of the lining of the radiator, the radio.
GAZ M-20 «Pobeda» (1949-1958) - a body a sedan фастбек engine, 4-cyl. 52 HP. (GAZ M-20), a modification for the taxi, mass series (37 492 ind.).GAZ M-20 «Pobeda - cabriolet» (there is a version that this modification had its own index of «GAS-М20Б») (1949-1953) - a body a sedan convertible (with rigid arcs of safety) engine 4-cyl. 52 HP. (GAZ M-20), modification of open-topped, mass series (14 222 copies.).

Еxperienced modification
GAZ-M-20Д (1956-1958) with forced 57-62 (h.p.) by increasing the compression ratio of the engine, a version for the MGB;
GAZ M-20 G or GAS-M-26 (1956-1958) - high-speed version for the MGB / KGB with the 90-horsepower 6-cylinder engine from Winters-a (apparently, as M-20G it is marked by the engine, and the car M-26);
Van - project, the body of the after-pillar was from бакелитизированной plywood with wooden frames;
Pickup - built on ремзаводах of sedans;
Sedan «Win-US» - 2 experienced instance (1948);
Стрэтч (in the body of the вварена box) - media units, was used in the development of the «ZIM»-a;
Four-door Grand convertible - малосерийного production of GAS ПАМС for the Ministry of war (front, заварена left rear door open, X-shaped amplifier on the bottom, the scope of the doors were absent);
Sports modification (it is - a «Win-Sport», «GAS-torpedo») - sports factory alteration of the tailings, двудверным body and uprated engine;


M-72
The Gorky plant from mid-1955, began to produce GAS-M-72 - the original machine, which combined a full-power chassis, designed on the basis of an army jeep GAZ-69, with a comfortable, at the time, a body «Victory». Externally, the car differed significantly increased clearance, mud flaps on the rear wheel arches and вездеходными tires. M-72 produced serially until 1958, and all was done 4677 pieces. It can be considered one of the first in the world of comfortable SUVs, cars of this class won wide popularity in our days. There are also reasons to believe his first безрамным SUV, as the M-72 kept carrying the body of the M-20. It is worth noting that the «Victory» GAZ M-72 never been called. 


Sources: 

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