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The car GAZ-3102 «Volga»

GAZ-3102 «Volga» car, produced serially since the end of 1981 to 2009, the Gorky automobile plant. Further improvement of the model GAZ-24.
Machines of this model continues to manually collect for special orders in the factory Atelier of the Gorky automobile plant.
The family also a member sedan special purpose («догонялка») GAS-31013 with карбюраторным V8 engine model ZMZ-505 (5,53 l., 195 HP.) and the automatic transmission of the model GAZ-13 «Chayka».
Universals of the model of GAS-31022 with roll «GAZ-3102 " were made in only small quantities on request (the bulk of this model was in front of the body from the model GAZ-31029).
GAZ-3102, initially изготавливавшийся on a limited scale on a separate production line, was intended to serve only the management middle management of party and Soviet government institutions and agencies, therefore, for sale to the public and in the taxi companies did not, even though initially this project and анонсировался in Soviet mass media in connection with the Moscow Olympics of 1980.
Special luxury «directories» status sedan model «3102» preserved for him, and in the more recent market era.


History of creation
By the mid-seventies «Volga» GAZ-24 in the largely obsolete appearance and technically compared to their European counterparts. In the late seventies with the involvement of US was conducted extensive testing of the current model GAZ-24, to identify its weaknesses and identify ways to address them. The experts WE noted in the document «On measures to improve the competitiveness of Soviet cars in X five-year plan» of 1976, in particular, the lack of directional stability «Volga» at high speeds, low passive safety, increased noise. To remedy these shortcomings have proposed specific measures, for example, the introduction of бесшкворневой front and spring rear suspension, were even identified some of the dates, say, the new suspension scheduled to be launched in 1978.
However, to implement these ideas in practice did not have enough resources and funding. The plant had to do рестайлингом and technical подновлением» «Volga».
Due to aging of the basic model - GAZ-24, was required to develop the car of the modernized «filling», and the main thing - the renewed appearance, mainly for maintenance of the nomenclature - that is, the machine, an intermediate for the prestige between the «Chaika» (which after the beginning of production in 1976 much longer and more severe than the previous model, GAZ-14, «left» in a higher class, came close to the cars ZIL and GAZ-24, prestige, which over the past from the beginning of the serial release of the slightly decreased due to the increasing number of private cars of this model. This niche in those years became a de-facto be filled with the Czech model of the Tatra 613, which should replace the vehicle of a domestic production.This car was to become a model «-3101» - the first machine plant, which had the determination to have long imposed by common industrial normal (HE 025270-66 from 1966). Unfortunately, information on this car remained not so much, mostly photographs. It can be seen that it was based on processed the back of the truck GAZ-24. The first prototypes of date back to the 1976-77 years. From the very beginning car designed under several engines: in addition to the traditional line of four it was about a V-shaped eight in 4.5 liters and, as and when designing actually GAZ-24, the new V6 in 3 liters.
Subsequently left only «four» and малосерийную version with the old «Tchaikovsky» V8 for special services.


Prototypes
In its initial form, as most of the cars Gas at the design stage, «thirty-first» had no special individuality is just an average European car of the middle class, something like a «Volvo» 240. However, with time machine modified, received more than wedge-shaped silhouette at the expense of the other line of the trunk and, in the end, acquired view all of us well-known model of the 3102.
The first prototype was a strange hybrid of - doors of 24; кузовщина resembled modern 3102, but was more round. In the early eighties appeared transitional form - 31011 (the version with-cylinders engine capacity of 4, 25 l), a more familiar form of a prototype. Already at this stage the gas tank of the car was located behind the rear seat, in недеформируемой zone, as seen from the arrangement of the plate filler. On the GAZ-3102 he stayed there until the nineties, after which he was transferred back under the floor of the trunk.


Place in the production program of Gas
Model GAZ-3102 замысливалась as «the duty update» «Volga» GAZ-24, the main task of which was to give the car, the modern design and the increased dynamics of the change of the flagship models of the - «the Seagull» GAZ-14.
If not a crisis, associated with the Restructuring, more likely, «GAZ-3102» so and would not become fully self-model and a basis for subsequent ГАЗовских machines, and would be, as it was planned, just a temporary transitional link to the new, much more modern machines of the family 3103-3104-3105.

Technical characteristics
Dimensions, mm - 4960x1820x1475The body - sedan
Engine ZMZ-4022.10 (1982-1992 gg.); ZMZ-402.10 (1992-present.); ZMZ-4021.10
(1992-2000); ZMZ-4062.10 (1994-present.); petrol; ZMZ-4062.10 -
впрысковый, the rest - carburetor, row
number of cylinders - 4
working volume - 2.3 l (ZMZ-4062.10); 2.45 l (other)
number of valves - 16 (ZMZ-4062.10); 8 (other)
location - left
power, HP/kW - 105/77,2 at 4750 rpm (ZMZ-4022.10); 100/73,5 at 4500 rpm
(ZMZ-402.10); 90/66,2 at 4500 rpm (ZMZ-4021.10); 130/96 in
5200 rpm (ZMZ-4062.10)
Gearbox : mechanical four-stage, since 1996. - four - or
a five-speed, since 1999. - a five-speed
Suspension
front - independent, spring
the rear axle, the longitudinal springs
the drive wheels, rear
Brake - hydraulic, with the hydro vacuum amplifier, the drum
front - drums (on the machines of the first years), disk (later)
rear - drum
Electrical Equipment - 12 In
Tire size - 205/70R14; 195/70R15 - since 1997.
Maximum speed, km/h - 152 (ZMZ-4022.10); 152 (ZMZ-402.10); 150 (ZMZ-
4021.10); 170 (ЗМЗ.4062.10)


Features
The main technical novelty was форкамерно-torch engine ZMZ-4022.10.
The first development форкамерных engines for GAS-e refer to the fiftieth years. They were conducted in order to improve fuel efficiency. Were created engines with форкамерным ignition for cars GAZ-51 (GAS-51Ф, was released some) and GAZ-21 (an experienced, was placed on prototypes).
The ignition of the working бензовоздушной mixture in them was not directly spark, the spark plugs, and the torch of incandescent gases, streaming from the special форкамеры (the prechamber) - a partially separated from the rest of the volume of the combustion chamber cavity, in which was located the candle (one per cylinder).In форкамеры through small additional valves in the engine (that is just a 4-cylinder engine was 12 valve - 8 intake and 4 exhaust, and the 6-cylinder, respectively, of 18) were filed with the mixture, which поджигалась spark and initiated a burning directly into the cylinder, where was served, on the contrary, a relatively poor working mixture. Accordingly, the carburetor was трехкамерным - primary, secondary and third, an enriched mixture in форкамеры.
However, in the tests revealed and weaknesses - in the first place, the lack of improvement of the economy (not more than 3-5 %), which, coupled with the instability of the work of the transient regimes, no longer pays significant complication of the design форкамерного engine. As a result, the serial production of the engines then don't go.
Meanwhile, work continued. For the car GAZ-24 also prepared engine with форкамерной ignition system (GAS-24Ф), but the developers are faced with the same problems, and up to a batch production he admitted was not.
The idea came when developing the model, designed to replace the «twenty-fourth» «Volga», having in mind not only improved fuel economy, but also the need to reduce harmful emissions into the atmosphere - форкамерный mechanism allowed to reach this through the provision of work of the engine on lean бензовоздушной mixture.
However, the breakthrough in the development came only after the abroad appeared workable standard model with форкамерным the ignition. In the mid-seventies the plant thoroughly studied the power unit of the car «Honda»civic CVCC (1975 g.), found in the Japanese development of missing answers to many of the existing issues.
The result of years of developments was a serial engine of the ZMZ-4022.10.
Its capacity increased up to 105 PS. (compared with 95 HP at regular ZMZ-24), while fuel efficiency, according to the manufacturer, has significantly improved (fuel consumption decreased from 10.5 liters per 100 km at a constant speed of 80 km/h - up to 8.5 liters per 100 km in the same conditions, that is almost 20 %).
Dynamics of «Volga» GAZ-3102 with this engine also has significantly improved - acceleration from a standstill to 100 km/h now occupy 16, 2 C. against 21 C. the GAS-24 - that is almost the same as that which at that time a very dynamic VAZ-2106.
In addition, through the use of lean mixture new engine was significantly more ecological than its predecessor.
However, being fully operational and polished design, the serial форкамерный engine had significant drawbacks. First of all it should be noted problems with overheating: despite the radiator increased capacity, the engine temperature mode was quite tense. In addition, the system was sensitive to set up and staff skills. A rather difficult and time consuming it was and service трехкамерного the carburetor K-156.As a result, the engine has acquired the repairmen from a rather bad reputation, and after termination of the release of spare parts became very scarce, and subsequently in the process of long-term operation on most machines precombustion chamber engines after production of motor-resource of were replaced by the conventional model of ZMZ-402.10. At the present time «Volga» GAZ-3102 early in the back of the truck (located behind the rear seats fuel tank and, accordingly, its door under the rear rack roof) with family форкамерными engines are quite rare, very seldom found and spare parts.
The instrument panel «GAZ-3102 «of the first issue (1981-1994). was outwardly in many ways similar to the later model GAZ-24-10, but is made of a higher quality of soft plastic and had a belt finishing under a tree across the entire width. Design and instruments like «Seagull» GAZ-14.
On the 3102 for the first time in the family of the «Volga» began to install front disc brakes (four-piston, with supports from AZLK-2140 and ventilated discs) and форкамерный carburetor engine ZMZ-4022.10 capacity of 105 HP.


Modernization
In fact the first modernization was already in the beginning of 90-s, when a machine is "out" from a government class and became available to the population, and a bad форкамерно-torch engine was replaced with a normal carburetor and the machine actually equal to the characteristics of the other Volga GAZ-31029.
In 1997, the «GAZ-3102 «was modernized. Update: 5-speed gearbox, the PTO drive shaft with interim support, неразрезной rear axle, steering booster, front ventilated disc brakes, type «Lucas», 15-inch wheels and new hubcaps, the instrument panel and seats type 3110 and other equipment of salon.
The main engine of the 3102 became a 2.3-liter ZMZ-4062.10 with four valves per cylinder and distributed injection of fuel, but on the car set and a more simple carburetor 2.5-liter engines ZMZ-402.10 (gasoline AI-92) иЗМЗ-4021.10 (AI-80), and a custom version of 3102-500 - мелкосерийный engine ZMZ-4064.10 with a capacity of 200 HP. Since 2004, part of the car was equipped with engines Chrysler 2.4 DOHC».
Various tuning of the company from the beginning of the 90-ies on the order set by 3102 a variety of accessories: new exterior plastic elements of decoration, electrical window regulators, actuators mirrors, air conditioning, etc., they made the longer version («shrink») GAS-31024, assembling imported petrol engines «Toyota» and «Rover», as ordered by also automatic transmission.In addition, 3102 is used to create a car with hidden booking, e.g., reed-2999.
From 2003 to serial 3102 appeared бесшкворневая front suspension stabilizer of transverse stability in the rear axle, the new (Czech) door handles.
In 2005 sedan 3102 got a new salon of mass model GAZ-31105, in turn, updated in July 2007 with the assistance of German specialists.
Since 2008, the «GAZ-3102 «are installed in-line engines ZMZ-405 of the working volume of 2.5 liters, meet ecological norms of Euro-3.
In November 2009, the GAZ-3102, as well as the whole RWD line of cars «Volga», was withdrawn from production due to the financial crisis, moral obsolescence and decline in demand. 

Sources:
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