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The car GAS-23 «Volga»

Since 1962, was produced by a motor-car GAS-23, distinguished by their adaptation to the installation of the eight-cylinder engine model ZMZ-23 (on the basis of the ZMZ-13 of «the Seagull») in the amount of 5,53 liters with an automatic gearbox.
Development started in 1959 by a group under the leadership of B. Дехтяра. When it was used a number of original design and technological solutions, in particular, the engine was installed with a slope along the axis of the crankshaft on the 2 degrees with great accuracy to prevent pique for details подкапотного space at work.
The engine was a motor of «the Seagull» GAZ-13, but with a number of unique details. Automatic gearbox different from «a Seagull» only switching unit - the GAZ-13 were used buttons, and the GAS-23 - stalk switch. On the part of the car lever was decorated externally under the standard for GAS-21 with the ICPC, some of the cars had a lever and the quadrant is a pointer modes of operation of GAS-M-21 with automatic transmission. Known and other options, but these are likely to be самоделками.
The body of the car was seriously reinforced, in particular, had reinforced should be welded on additional strips of metal front longitudinal members and completely original mask of the radiator, which differs in shape from the GAZ-21. The weight of the car has increased by more than 300 kg.
In the trunk of some of the copies installed ballast (often referred to as «lead plate») to improve the развесовки (however-preserved specimens with ballast or mounts for him is not known; however, almost all the surviving machine significantly altered). For other information, the installation of the ballast was carried out already on the ground, and his role in used, in particular, curb stones.
Because of the hard of a temperature mode, significantly modified system of brakes, the car received a new brake drums, produced by original technologies, brake pads increased wear resistance, the brake master cylinder original design (from GAZ-21 with automatic transmission, similar to the cylinder GAS-13). Apply the original brake fluid ask on the basis of изоамилового alcohol mixed with castor oil. Power brakes on GAS-23 has never been installed.
The suspension has also been modified. In front stood reinforced springs with a rod of enlarged diameter and at the rear axle - original springs of the sheets with increased thickness (6.5 mm, the GAZ-21 - 6 mm except in the indigenous leaf, which had a thickness of 6.5 mm) and lever shock absorbers, most likely from the GAZ-21 early modifications with more powerful valves from «Winter»-a.
The car had one exhaust pipe, in which at the end of the exhaust tract were brought together two pipes, coming from the engine exhaust manifolds (in contrast to dual exhaust on the GAZ-13).The main couple of the rear of the bridge was the original design, with a gear ratio of 3,38. Later it began to be placed on the «the Seagull» (before that they were in the pair with the attitude of 3,58). Himself CarterBridge and half were staff.
Maximum speed with all of the modifications of the test results exceeded 170 km/h, but in technical terms was introduced the figure of 160 km/h (GAZ-21 with the standard engine went up to 130 km/h). Разгонная dynamics have also significantly increased - instead of 34 seconds of the base sedan and 18 seconds of «the Seagull», GAZ-23 with automatic transmission accelerate to 100 km/h in just 16 seconds.


The modification of the GAS-23 «Volga»:
GAS-23 - the basic model;
GAS-23A - with a mechanical gearbox (experimental);
GAS-23А1 - with спецоборудованием;
GAS-23B - with improved finishing;

In addition, there is information on the existence of a very small number of GAS-23 in the back of the truck GAZ-22 (that is, universal). For example, it is mentioned that such a machine worked in the design-and-experimental Department (IEA) GAS as киносъемочной machines with high dynamic capabilities, able to stay ahead of the column of test equipment for preparing to shoot.
All from 1962 to 1970 it was released more than 600 of these cars. According to the researcher question Dmitry Gvozdeva, just 603 instances, the main issue was in 1962, 1963, as well as the 1970s. Most of famous cars were produced in 1962.
Car found wide application in the Committee of state security, in particular, was used for escorts government services «Seagull» and «ZIL», and also for patrolling at high speed.
Reliability and durability of the car, contrary to common rumors, were high, and the operation and maintenance of produced technically competent, trained specialists, whose advice is often, helped the designers of the car in its further improvement.
Following the development of the resource cars were written off, and for the most part were destroyed. Part, however, one way or the other moved to the personal use of citizens, due to which a number of copies has been preserved to our time. Researcher of the issue and the owner of one of the surviving copies of Dmitry Гвоздеву at the present time there are 12 cars in Russia and Ukraine, mainly issued in 1962, of which part in the operation of the lost original engine and transmission, and now have four-cylinder engines. 

Technical characteristics:
Number of seats (including the driver): 5;
Overall dimensions:
length: 4850 mm;
width: 1800 mm;
altitude: 1650 mm;
wheelbase: 2700 mm;
The track of the front wheels (on the ground): 1410 mm;
Rear track: 1420 mm;
The lowest point of the vehicle (full load):
cross bar front suspension: 200 mm;
muffler pipe: 190 mm;
Carter rear axle: 190 mm;
Turn radius (on tracks of the outer front wheel): 6.3 m;
The angles of incidence (full load):
front: 24 degrees;
rear: 19 degrees;
Dry weight of the vehicle (without load, water, oil, gasoline, spare wheel and tools): 1610 kg;
The greatest speed: 160 km/h (according to the documentation, actually more than 170);
Engine:
Type: gasoline, carburetor, four-stroke;
The number and arrangement of cylinders: eight, V-shaped arrangement;
Cylinder diameter: 100 mm;
Stroke: 88 mm;
Displacement: 5,53 l.;
Compression ratio: 8,5;
Maximum power: 195 BHP at 4,400 rpm.;
Torque max: 42 KGM at 2200 rpm.;
The cylinder block: aluminum alloy, with «wet» removable liners made of cast iron;
Crankshaft: from high-strength cast iron, четырехколенный, пятиопорный;
Carburetor: type K-114, a four, well-balanced, with falling stream;
Transmission:
The torque Converter: a three-wheeled, with water and air cooling the oil, the transformation ratio of 2.4;
Gearbox: planetary, three-stage, with automatic gear shift and toggle the inclusion;
Transfer number:
I transfer: 2,84;
II transmission: 1,62;
III transmission: 1,00;
Reverse: 2,00;
Floating transfer: open type, with two shaft with the intermediate support and three Kardan with needle bearings;
The main transmission: conical, гипоидная; the gear - 3,38. 

Sources: 
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