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The car GAZ-21 «Volga»

«Volga» GAZ-21 - Soviet passenger car of middle class, serially produced at the Gorky automobile plant since 1956(1957) to 1970. Factory model index - initially, GAS-M-21, later (since 1965) - GAZ-21. All were released 639 478 copies of all modifications

Background
Since 1946, the GAS issue a motor-car GAZ M-20 «Pobeda». At the beginning of the production of «Victory» has been quite a modern design and advanced design.
However, to the beginning of the next decade, the appearance of it gradually became obsolete, part of the aggregate also has lagged behind the level of world leaders. There was a need to replace it with a more modern technically and visually perfect model.
The first attempt to develop a long-term model to replace the existing GAS-M-20 dates back to 1948, when the specialists of the US by order of the Ministry of automobile industry has developed its own variant of restyling serial «Victory»in the history of the remaining under the name of «Win-US». 
In 1951, directly on the GAS-e has started development of a car medium class of new generation under the designation of GAS-M-21 «Win-II» (General designer - A. A. Липгарт, later - In. Solovyov; designer - L. Eremeev). 


Development
The basis of the technical task for the car lay the Foundation for the «Victory» of the second generation (see above), in particular - was used the same layout with the few ahead of the passenger salon, which combined with a decrease in the dimensionality of the wheels with 16 up to 15" allowed to make it a more spacious at the same wheelbase, almost to remove the characteristic of GAZ M-20 speakers in the salon rear wheel arches.
Since 1952, was carried out parallel to the work on two independent projects GAS-M-21 under the mottoes «Star» (designer - John Williams) and «Volga» (the designer is the lion Eremeev).
In 1953, were ready layouts of both machines. «Star» for this period has gone through several iterations of the design of search, in the final of them becoming, in essence, a complete analogue of the «Volga» from the back of the door ahead, but with having a barrel, as a «Victory,» the roof of a body of type фастбек and two large fins at the stern; however трехобъемный sedan Eremeeva was closer to the industrial realities and looked more traditional, and in the light of further development of automotive design - and more promising, so that, ultimately, the work was continued exactly over the «Volga». Since 1953, the leading designer of the car was appointed A. Nevzorov, and the chief designer of the plant for the greater part of the design of the car was N. And. Borisov.The first prototypes were ready in 1954. Known pictures showing the prototype of the M-21 with a license plate гв00-08на the Gorky highway (now the Highway M7 «Volga»), dated 9 July 1954, thus, at this time prototypes M-21 is being actively tested.
By 1955, running prototypes were brought to the ready state to the state acceptance tests. The third of may three «Volga» - cherry-red (prototype № 1), blue, and white - were sent to the comprehensive state tests in conjunction with the various cars of domestic and foreign production. One of the test machines was with a mechanical gearbox, the rest - with the «automatic».
The first conditional serial «Volga» were collected 10 October 1956, they already had the appearance roll «with a star - three copies. All the party was five cars.
In the autumn and winter of 1956 eight «Volga» (experienced 1954-55, and the machines of the experimental-industrial series 1956) on 29 thousand kilometers on roads of Russia, the Baltic States, Ukraine, Belarus and the Caucasus.


The first series of» GAZ-21 (model 1957)
The cars produced from 1956 to November 1958 subsequently received the name «first episode» (also, «first release», «the star»).
10 October 1956, the lines off (and, most likely, came out of the малосерийного pilot production of the three, the first production of «Volga» GAZ-21.
Just a series of 1956 was five copies. Mass production began only in the following year.
Until the end of 1957, the machine was produced with forced нижнеклапанным the engine of «Victory», which had greater working volume at the expense of boring cylinders up to 88 mm, and the increased degree of compression - up to 7.0:1 (2,42 l., 65 HP at 3800 rpmmin., torque of 15.8 kg•m) - all were released 1100 cars. The same engine was placed on the export version of the jeep GAZ-69. Today, it is one of the most rare modifications. Нижнеклапанный engine агрегировался only with a manual transmission.
There were also other features of, in particular, the rear axle with неразрезным Carter, created on the basis of the unit of the «ZIM»-and GAS-M-12 by the shortening of the drive axles and their casings.
In the summer of 1957 has finished preparation of the production of its own engine model ZMZ-21, supplied newly built Заволжским motor plant (2,445 l., 70 HP), and in the end of the year (according to other data - from July, since only 1100 cars from 5 thousand in 1957, received the old engine), the factory has passed on equipping motor vehicles with a new engine.
All were released a little more than 30 thousand cars of all modifications to the design.Before the days of our machines with a star» in the original way came quite a bit, the bulk of the surviving vehicles partially rebuilt in later modifications, what is associated with a relatively high relevance «of the first issue of» on the Russian market old-timers.
The model of 1957 were the so-called «water 3/4», that is, the ending felt not reach the rear of the wing, but longer than the «short» (of all occurring options, the length - intermediate).
Later, after a certain number of chassis in 1958, began to put the «long» gutters, not reaching to the wing of only a few centimeters (on width of a chrome belt trim, powered on version with enhanced design).
The main feature of the interior of the first series - the instrument panel without finishing кожзамом or coated and with a «low» facing the receiver with the top horizontally speaker, covered with metal bars. And so it remained until the end of 1958, that is, after the transition to a facing of type II series (see below). The windshield on the «first of a series» (in any case, at the earliest serial machines) has been lining in the form of a thin neuralgia trim, as the Winters-e or «Victory», instead of the later developed form of the side plate on the front of the rack roof.
Some of the cars had two-tone color, she was also available on request for an additional fee. The number of color combinations was very high, used three types of division of flowers: the roof of one color - the lower part of the other; or - the roof and the lower part of the body up to выштамповки on the sidewall of the same colour, the rest of the other; or - the roof and выштамповка on the rear wing and the door of one color, the rest of the machine of another.


«Second series» (model 1959)
The cars produced the end of 1958 - the beginning of 1959, is called a «transitional», and the years 1959-1962 «second series» («the second issue of»).
At the end of 1958 the car was upgraded, mainly externally. Changed the shape of the front wings in favour of increasing the wheel arches, making front was in General repeated the appearance of one of the prototypes of the 1955 (the so-called «shark mouth», with 16 slots radiator), respectively, due to the change of the lining of the radiator there is a new castle hood. Salon and mechanical part of the remained virtually unchanged, although gradual modernization has not been stopped. After February 1959, the external and the interior design of the car was slightly modified, appeared details, such as: cat's eyes in the glass rear lights (the glass
several changed, received other internal ribbing), as amended lamp rear registration plate (without radial rib), the new instrument panel with флокированной (later covered with a leather substitute) of the upper part of, in order to avoid distracting the driver's reflections on the windshield and more richly decorated receiver (with vertically located on the front of the instrument panel loudspeaker, closed with a thin metal mesh in a decorative chrome frame, windshield washer. As with any upgrade, there were other, discreet «naked eye», change.There are photos of the prototype of the 1959 model year, which had changed the design of the rear - sharp «fins» in the American style, in a series, this option does not go.
Modernization of units and units of the car took place in 1960. The machine has received modern wiring with «minus» on the mass of (before that the mass was «plus»), removed the centralized lubrication node chassis, made some other changes and improvements. The body has been strengthened by the installation of a special amplifiers.
All were released a little more than 140 thousand cars of all modifications.
Approximately at the same time with the release of «transitional» cars «Volga» were equipped with the body with the «short» drain, ending long before the hind wings (see the illustration on the left).
Part of the vehicles of the «second release», and «the first», had to plant two-tone color.

«The third series of» (model 1962)
The 1962 model year of the car was again upgraded, this time a more radical. Upgraded models have the conditional name «the third series of». Quantitatively these are the most common.
Completely changed the appearance - a new radiator grille, nicknamed the «whalebone», consisting of 37 vertical racks (later the figure of the lattice been applied in many other passenger models of GAS); bumper without «fangs» with the horizontal partitioning into two parts - the lower is painted in the body colour; from the hood disappeared figure of a deer and molding (even on a late «second series» deer put a rare, often - каплевиднуютравмобезопасную decorative detail, «drop»).
The General idea of the design of the «Volga», 1962 - less of chromium, more clean lines. Some of the features of the style of the overlap with the car «Chaika» GAZ-13, while the «second series» was stylistically adequate, close to the predecessor, «the Seagull» - GAS-M-12 «ZIM».
Prototype model of 1962 were other differences, but in the serial production of the planned changes were triggered not in full or in a modified form.
The engine was a little more powerful (75 HP), worm shock absorbers replaced by a telescopic of the production program was removed version with automatic transmission. The salon was somewhat upgraded changed appearance, there appeared a new, more durable materials for finishing (leather - повинол for the ceiling, new wool fabric for sofas).
In the early cars of this model gutters were short, as in the II series. Later (from about 1963) on machines normal bundling appeared long watercourses, up to the rear wings, and enhanced the same, but a little cut to set the world moulding.In addition, since 1962, have moved to the more solid the whole side of the body, instead of a more early, boiled in кондукторе of the individual parts (this transition took place back then, when the machines were produced in the design of II series).
Two-color painting «from the factory» practically is not met on the cars of the «third series», except for the taxi from the roof of a contrasting color (usually red or yellow) - so sometimes painted cars, used in the cab companies, or have passed the overhaul of the ремзаводах. Among taxi drivers such machines had the nickname of «little red riding hood».


Technical characteristics
The number of places (including the driver): 5;
Overall dimensions:
length: 4850 mm;
width: 1800 mm;
altitude: 1650 mm;
wheelbase: 2700 mm;
The track of the front wheels (on the ground): 1410 mm;
Rear track: 1420 mm;
The lowest point of the vehicle (full load):
cross bar front suspension: 200 mm;
muffler pipe: 190 mm;
Carter rear axle: 190 mm;
Turn radius (on tracks of the outer front wheel): 6.3 m;
The angles of incidence (full load):
front: 24 degrees;
rear: 19 degrees;
Dry weight of the vehicle (without load, water, oil, gasoline, spare wheel and tools): 1610 kg;
Maximum speed: 160 km/h (according to the documentation, really more than 170);
Engine:
Type: gasoline, carburetor, four-stroke;
The number and arrangement of cylinders: eight, V-shaped arrangement;
Cylinder diameter: 100 mm;
Stroke: 88 mm;Displacement: 5,53 l.;
Compression ratio: 8,5;
Maximum power: 195 BHP at 4,400 rpm.;
Torque max: 42 KGM at 2200 rpm.;
The cylinder block: aluminium alloy, with «wet» removable liners made of cast iron;
Crankshaft: from high-strength cast iron, четырехколенный, пятиопорный;
Carburetor: type K-114, a four, балансированный, with falling stream;
Transmission:
The torque Converter: a three-wheeled, with water and air cooling the oil, the transformation ratio of 2.4;
Gearbox: planetary, three-stage, with automatic gear shift and availability the inclusion;
Transfer number:
I transfer: 2,84;
II transmission: 1,62;
III transmission: 1,00;
Reverse: 2,00;
Floating transfer: open type, with two shaft with the intermediate support and three Kardan with needle bearings;
The main transmission: conical, гипоидная; the gear - 3,38.


The basic modification of the base sedan
GAS-M-21 sedan model 1957 with automatic transmission;
GAZ-M-21A - 1957-1958, taxi model 1957;
GAZ-M-21АЮ - 1959-1958, tropical version of the taxi model, 1957;
GAZ-M-21A - 1959-1962, taxi 1959 model year;
GAZ-M-21АЮ - 1959-1962, tropical version of the taxi the 1959 model year;
GAS-M-21B - 1957, taxi model 1957 нижнеклапанным of the engine;
GAZ-M-21in point - of 1957-1958, the base sedan model, 1957;
GAZ-M-21ВЮ - 1957-1958, tropical version of the model, 1957;
GAZ-M-21Г - 1956-1957, the base sedan model 1957 with нижнеклапанным of the engine;
GAZ-M-21ГЮ - 1956-1957, tropical version of the model, 1957 with нижнеклапанным of the engine;
GAZ-M-21D - 1957-1958, an export version of the model, 1957;
GAZ-M-21ДЮ - 1957-1958, tropical export version of the model, 1957;
GAZ-M-21ST - export version of the model, 1957 with automatic transmission;
GAZ-M-21ЕЮ - tropical export version of the model 1957 year with automatic transmission;
GAZ-M-21 - 1958-1962, base sedan model, 1958;
GAZ-M-21К - 1959-1962, an export version of the model, 1958;
GAZ-M-21КБ - 1960-1962, set for Belgium model 1958;
GAZ-M-21КЮ - 1959-1962, tropical export version of the model, 1958;
GAZ-M-21L - 1962-1964, basic sedan model, 1962;
GAZ-M-21M - 1962-1964, an export version of the model, 1962;
GAZ-M-21МЮ - 1962-1964, tropical export version of the model, 1962;
GAZ-21 - 1964 - the export version of the model 1962 with the right wheel;
GAS-21НЮ - 1964 - tropical export version of the model in 1962 with the the right wheel;
GAS-21П - export version of the model 1965 with the right wheel;
GAS-21ПЕ - export version of the model, 1965 with right steering and automatic transmission;
GAS-21Р - 1965-1970, base sedan model, 1965;
GAZ-21 - 1965-1970, an export version of the model, 1965;
GAS-21Т - 1962-1964, taxi model, 1962;
GAS-21ТС - 1965-1970, taxi model, 1965;
GAS-21У - 1959 (approximately)-1964, modification with improved design models 1959 and 1962;
GAS-21US - 1965-1970, modification with improved design model, 1965;
GAS-21F - experienced with форкамерным of the engine;
GAS-21Э - 1965-1970, sedan model 1965 with a shielded electronic equipment; 

Sources: 

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