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The car GAZ-M-1 («Эмка»)

GAZ-M-1 («Эмка») - Soviet car, produced in series at the Gorky automobile plant from 1936 to 1943.
In the years of the great Patriotic war the factory were going to separate instances of the available parts. The car has become one of the symbols of his era, played a significant role in the war years, as it is one of the most common models of passenger cars in the country and has been used very widely.


Background:
The first prototypes of the GAS-M-1, emerged in February 1935. The serial production of the car was replaced by GAS-A in 1936. On March 16, the Assembly line of the Gorky automobile plant came down, two first serial cars, and on 20 may start their mass production, amounting up to the end of the year 2524 machine.
The main novelty of the car became the all-metal body (but initially with дерматиновой the upper part of the roof), created in cooperation with the Ford motor company in the framework of the ten-year agreement on technical cooperation. 


Development of:
Was taken as the basis popular American car Ford Model B (рус.Форд Model Bi) model 1934 (the body of the 40A) with in-line four-cylinder engine (it is published in Germany Ford Rheinland). The documentation on car was transferred to the GAS-from the American side on the terms of the contract. Ford also produced in the car with the same body, but equipped with a V8 engine, called Ford Model 18 (the number «1» meant «the first model», «8» is the number of cylinders). But the basis of the Soviet design was not taken this model, namely, the four-cylinder Ford B, which is not to be confused with the similar-looking-cylinders Model 18. Thus, one often encounters the statement that the designers of Gas allegedly replaced V8 on рядную«four», is wrong - just for a sample was taken model, originally had a четырехцилиндровую power plant. The letter «M» in the index model arose because the plant began to bear the name of the then head of government of the USSR (Chairman of the Council of people's Commissars) -Vyacheslav Mikhailovich Molotov, and «1» - the ordinal number of the model. The letter «M» remained in the notation of the products of the plant until the sixties (Molotov was expelled from the party in 1962 and placed on the retired in 1963).

Comparison with foreign prototype:
In the course of adaptation of the model to the Russian conditions of operation of the car was in fact largely engineered by the Soviet specialists again. From the prototype GAS-M-1 distinguished by many of the details:
more powerful frame (actually re-designed due to the radical change of the hangers);
the suspension on the four longitudinal springs instead of two cross - respectively, completely revised on «Ford»; tires of low pressure;
stamped wheel disks instead of спицованных.
To appear on the car engine GAZ-M was on constructive solutions is similar to the engine Ford B, as well as a product of the modernization of the motor Ford-A - GAS-A, but the equipment for its production was a Soviet, as from the United States was transferred to the only documentation.
Also were made minimal changes in the design - in particular, were re-designed front wings, which in the Soviet car had a more attractive form and better covered by the frame and the elements of the front suspension in the front. The latter was done by the staff of the plant for the experience and development of the графопластического method of constructing a complex geometrical surfaces.
In General, the car turned out to be significantly modernized in comparison not only with the previous model, but also with the prototype, and in some items exceeded and the more recent production of «Ford» (for example, a primitive front suspension on the transverse springs for cars «Ford» was put before 1948). Comparison with the previous model:
Among the features of the M-1 compared with the previous model, GAZ-A, - a comfortable indoor, almost all-metal body (except for the wooden side timber roof), more rigid лонжеронная frame with the X-shaped cross beam, the more perfect and tenacious suspension on a longitudinal springs, automatic ignition timing, better decorated and equipped with salon - adjustable front-to-back front bucket seats, electric fuel gauge, противосолнечные visors, ventilation of the body four rotary glasses («форточками») in the side Windows. 
The car has received the modernized more powerful 50-strong motor GAS-METERS, with much improved relative to the previous model design, more durable. Capacity he was raised up to 50 HP to 40 HP at GAS-A (Ford (A) due to the increase in the degree of compression to 4.6:1, and other measures. Structurally, it was significantly up-to-date of its predecessor - in particular, received a fuel pump (on the GAS, AND fuel flows to the engine by gravity from behind the instrument panel fuel tank), the lubrication system under pressure instead of окунавшихся in located in the crankcase oil черпачков the rods and the pump in the cooling system instead of термосифонной system that worked due to the temperature difference. Came automatic ignition advance (on the GAS, AND the driver is installed firing angle with the help of a special lever), was somewhat improved the carburetor.
The engine of GAZ-M in the future become mounted and trucks GAZ-AA (GAZ-MM after modernization). The gearbox was introduced gear coupling constant on the second and third gears with a slip clutch switch, instead of the archaic moving gears in GAS-A. The gearbox in its basis, after modernization was used up until 1950, and the «Victory».


Features:
The main mass of the car was painted in black color with a narrow red stripe along the side - it is painted so, for example, the instance stored in the factory Museum GAS.
Metal parts of the vehicle interior were decorated under the expensive sorts of wood (painting on metal is a very popular in those years, the type of finish); the salon had the upholstery of gray or brown woolen cloth (type шинельного).


Overview of the modifications
On the basis of GAS-M-1 were created: the truck GAZ-415, taxi, six-cylinder modification GAZ-11-73 (sedan) and GAS-11-40 Phaeton.

Basic modifications:
GAZ-M-1 taxi (1937-1941) - was distinguished by the presence of a taximeter and the elements of the exterior.
GAZ-M-415 (1939-1941) - up truck with carrying capacity of 500 kg. Produced over 8 thousand pickups.
GAZ-11-73 (1940-1941, 1945-1948) - advanced sedan with a 6-cylinder engine GAS-11 and modified trimmed radiator grille and hood.
GAS-61-73 (1941-1945) - the world's first sedan 4x4, in 1942-1945 was occasionally small parties. Approximately 200 cars.
The BA-20 - easy бронеавтомобиль.
All from 1936 to 1942 years was 62 888 car GAZ-M-1. 


Малосерийные and experienced modifications:
GAZ-M-1 Phaeton (1937) - an experimental model with a body Phaeton, the body has been used in 1939для experienced
GAS-61.ГАЗ-M-1, V8 (including 1938-1940, the designation of conditionally) - small series sedans M-1 for the needs of the NKVD was equipped with imported motors Ford V8 (65 HP), in 1941 most of these engines was removed from the «Эмок-догонялок» for installation on T-60 tanks.
GAS-11-40 (1940)/ GAS-61-40 (1941) - six-Phaeton, a series did not go. Although the body dies and were manufactured, constructed not more than 6 copies. In 1941 all issued tropicbirds were converted on the chassis of GAZ-61 that is transformed into a GAS-61-40 and used the Supreme command staff of the red army, in 1942, open body replaced by a closed type «M-1» and «73».
GAS-M-21 (1936) is an experienced triaxial (6x4) pickup truck based on the GAZ-M1, the cab from GAZ-AA. In 1937 it is made of 100 sets, but in the series of the machine is not started.
GAZ-M-25 (1938) - triaxial staff vehicle with a 5-local body type рамбл-Sith, a series did not go.
GAS-11-415 (1940) - six-cylinder truck, in a series of no пошел.ГАЗ-61-415 (1940) - pickup 4x4, the series went not, built 2 copies.
GAS-61-417 (1941) - light artillery tractor 4x4, in the second half of 1941 built 36 cars, immediately equipped with 57-mm anti-tank guns trailed with передками.
GAS(NATL)-BM (1937-1938) - an experienced полугусенично-wheel all-terrain vehicle on the basis of GAS-M-1, with bodies of type the sedan and pickup.
GAS ГЛ1 (1938) - the race car, built on the basis of the GAZ-M1 under the leadership of E. In. Агитова. The car was able to develop at a distance of 1 km from the speed 147,84 km/h. Later, in 1940, the machine was installed to boost the power unit is GAS-11, with the capacity of 100 HP. The upgraded version of established all-Union record speed - 161,78 km/h. Modernization:
At the end of the 1930-ies it was decided on the modernization of the vehicle. In the first place, it was necessary to replace the rapidly ageing engine. The experience once again turned to the Americans.
The most suitable for production and operation in the USSR was recognized as the six-cylinder engine Dodge D5 (in series with the 1928.) [1][2]. this engine had a modern, at the time, the design, and almost in two time’s larger liter power than the engine of GAZ-M-1. IN 1937-38 years in the United States was purchased all necessary for the production of equipment, drawings were transferred to the metric system. Soon (1940) began mass production of the engine under the designation of GAS-11. The engine had a working volume of 3,5 liters (more precisely, 3485 cm3) and good for those years of power - 76 HP. Subsequently, on its basis have been created engines «Victory» иГАЗ-12 Winters.
Suitable for the installation of the version of «Emka» by GAZ-11-73, from M-1 she was, in addition to the motor, other, more modern, design of the front, in addition, to extend the front springs, set the front stabilizer of transverse stability, improved the efficiency of the brakes, typed double-acting hydraulic shock absorbers, and so on.
On the basis of GAZ-11-73 was created the model of GAS-61 with all wheel drive and increased ground clearance. The family of GAS-61 consisted of the army of pick-up trucks and phaetons for officers of the army. GAZ-61 distinguished himself during the great Patriotic war. Command of the army was highly appreciated the robustness and reliability of the car. GAS-61-73 became the first in the world of comfortable SUV with closed a body «sedan». Production of the car GAZ-11-73 lasted until 1948, as the engine of GAZ-11 has successfully lived up to 1992. This engine were in the years of war tanks and self-propelled guns, and in the postwar years - car Winters and trucks GAZ-51, GAZ-63 and GAZ-52.

Operation in the taxi:
In 1936-46 gg. GAZ-M1 was the main Soviet a taxi. For example, in the cab companies of Leningrad, the first 20 cars of this brand have done already in the first quarter of 1936. On September, 1939, inMinsk there were 20 taxis GAZ-M1, in Leningrad - 465, inMoscow - 2740. The last taxicabs GAZ-M1 were put out of operation in 1946-47 gg.

Historical facts:
In 1937, GAS-M-1, was exhibited at the world industrial exhibition in Paris. During the great Patriotic war, the car GAZ-61 enjoyed such prominent figures as marshals to. To. Rokossovsky Str., To. Zhukov and And. With. Konev.
Got a sad name of "the Black crow" in connection with the fact, that was used by the NKVD for the arrests of the "enemies of the people" in 1937-38). the peaks of Stalin's repressions. The letter M in the index model arose because the plant began to bear the name of the Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR As. M. Molotov. Hence the popular nickname of GAS-M-1, «Эмка».


Sources: 

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