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The car GAS-3105 «Volga»

GAS-3105 «Volga» is a car of higher (F) of the class with a high level of comfort, produced from 1992 to 1996, at the facilities of the Gorky automobile plant.
In 1970, the Gorky automobile plant has started the production of the fifth generation of the car of middle class - GAZ-24 «Volga». It was originally supposed, that the car will be produced about ten-fifteen years. In 1978, the year was to debut the new model of the fifth generation, and somewhere in the 1980-th the final change on the conveyor.
However, a number of reasons, mainly the political and financial (see. Consumer ideal in the USSR and the Period of stagnation) these plans violated. The alleged "change" has decided to make as deep modernization of the GAS-24. So in the late 1970s, a project of GAS-3101. However, and its planned implementation was postponed, and in 1978 year GAS only slightly modified 24-ku.
Although the GAS continued to lobby for your project, in the course of which 3101 gradually turned into a «GAZ-3102", "reach out" to the Council of Ministers was unable to. But in October of 1980, in a crash near Minsk was killed the first Secretary of the Communist party of the Belarusian SSR Peter Машеров. As a consequence of this was ordered to complete edition limousine GAZ-13 «Chayka» (in which he died). This vehicle, which appeared back in 1959 year, harvested by hand and not only never in private hands is not sold, but also served exclusively for carriage of the Soviet elite. Appeared in 1976, his replacement, GAZ-14 «Chayka», turned out to be much higher and prestigious in the class, so it was decided to continue the release of the old «the Seagull» at the same time a new, despite its obvious archaism. But in the confusion after the accident with Машеровым, was ordered to stop the production of the old car.
Thus, in неписанной hierarchy of official vehicles appeared space. Here and remembered about the «GAZ-3102", the project, which is already a few years waiting for approval. This was a paradoxical situation: on Gaza in parallel gathered two of the «Volga» is a rapidly устаревавшая GAZ-24, with its modifications at the main Assembly line, and its upgraded version, the GAZ-3102, manual Assembly, the limited number of about 2-3 thousand a year, for the maintenance of the nomenclature.
In March 1985, the year of coming to power of Mikhail Gorbachev, with which the country has entered into a new cycle of history - the era of perestroika. By that time, developed in the late 1960s GAZ-24 «Volga» completely outdated both technically and externally. GAZ-3102, though, and looked fresh on the background of foreign cars of the second half of the 1970s (Mercedes-Benz W123 for example), but in the background of new foreign cars is the mid-1980s (the same Mercedes-Benz W124) in the best case conservatively.Both cars demanded urgent replacement. However, long-term policy of planned economy, and the bodies of the state plan and state construction Committee of the unwillingness of the adjacent industries to develop the new nodes in favor of mass production of more simple and inefficient management Минавтопромом of the USSR in the face of "ВАЗовского" Minister Polyakova, led to the fact that at the moment, the Gorky Automobile Plant projects vehicles of a new generation existed only in the form of drawings and models, rather than running prototype.
Correcting the situation, in 1985 it was decided at the same time to establish replace the Volga GAZ-3102, conveyor GAZ-24, as a temporary measure, and at the same time accelerate the development of a new car. The Foundation took Audi 100 of the third generation (1983), from which, after a comprehensive study of the decided to take a cross-section of the body at an average rack or wiring diagram of the layout of the transmission. The model range was to consist of three main vehicles and their modifications. The base should be переднеприводный GAS-3103 with four-cylinder engine. GAS-3104, sky rear with a six-cylinder. GAS-3105, all-wheel-with-cylinders engine, elongated base and the weight of the additional equipment.
In 1986 there were built the first 4 prototype GAS-3103/4/5. At the same time GAS fulfilled the long-awaited modernization of the conveyor «Volga», so there was a GAZ car 24-10, with a delay of almost ten years. Given the "temporary" nature of the 24-10, as well as the impossibility of quick transition from GAS-24 in «GAZ-3102» due to the above reasons for inefficient management and culture minautoprom, it was decided not only to abandon the project to an external modernization of GAZ-24, but also use many nodes «GAZ-3102 «in significantly simplified form.
But in 1988, politics again intervened in the production of the plant. "Victim" is a car GAZ-14 «Chayka», the Assembly of which on the order of Mikhail Gorbachev has been discontinued, under the auspices of the "struggle against privileges". Then the Council of Ministers decided to Gaza focus on GAS-3105, as a replacement for «the Seagull», leaving the rest for later. Make a situation similar to the one that was in the early 1980's, instead of the new mass of the vehicle, a small series for the officials of the second level, which ZIL was not laid, and " GAZ-3102 " already несолиден. In 1990 began the trials of the new machine.
However, in 1991, the Soviet Union finally collapsed. Entering into the market economy, Gas had to soberly assess the situation. Firstly, the removal of «the Seagull» with production happened on the background of liberalization of the economy of the USSR, and as a consequence, its place was taken by imported cars. The appearance of the last definitively deprived of the prestige of the «Volga», including «GAZ-3102", the release of which was reduced from three thousand units in 1991 to 423 of the car in 1992. The main demand of the new reality was lorry "Gazel", production of which has become the priorities of the Gas before as heavy trucks, and cars.However, without the financial support of the state, Gaza was needed capital for the development of the Gazelles, and it was decided to dramatically increase the volume of passenger Volgas. Jerry was made another modernization of GAS-24-10, the input of which she turned into a GAS-31029, mainly through the use of press-forms of " GAZ-3102", which is also since 1993 took off all sorts of restrictions and allowed to sell to private persons. The downside of this solution is the sharp fall in the quality of the Assembly of these cars. But against the background of such shocks, the end of the tests and has received the admission to the production of GAS-3105 was no one needs. The equipment required related suppliers, which in post-Soviet Russia was not, that made the price is very expensive due to the economic recession in the country. And projects for more budgetary brethren, GAS-3103 and GAS-3104 so and remained on paper, even with 1988.
Nevertheless, in 1994, the production of yet started. the 5-th of January 1994, the President of Russia Boris Yeltsin signs decree, in which up to 1996 JSC GAS is obliged to create the necessary capacities for manufacturing of GAS-3105 amounting to 250 units a year. On the same order, already in 1994 JSC should take 100 units, and in the next 150. But the decree has not been fulfilled.
In Gaza to 1987, were represented by the first prototypes, with a range of innovations, such as rack and pinion steering with hydraulic booster, steering wheel adjustment on length and angle, constant full drive with the possibility of blocking the axis differential and full electro, including the Central locking. Suspension type McPherson at the front and rear.
The peculiarity of the car was a good layout, in which the salon with the same external dimensions with the usual «Volga» was spacious, with elektroregulirovkami seats, without a direct line. Drag coefficient CX=...0,35 0,36. Was the installation of the climate system.
The machine was equipped with карбюраторным engine 3105 V8, with the carburetor K-114 and, later «Пирбург» (Pierburg). The engine 3105 had unification with the engine of VAZ-21083 and агрегатировался with the twin-shaft concrete five-speed gearbox and dry однодисковым adherence to диафрагменной spring extracted type. To control the motor was used contact less ignition system with the engine speed. The intention was also to use ABS and a catalyst exhaust gases.
For the dealers of the cost of the car was from $50,000 to $60000, which was comparable to the automobiles of the foreign production of the same class.
In 1992, the car was presented at the international exhibitions in Leipzig and Brussels, and made an impression. However, estimate that the production of such a vehicle for the government is expensive, and from 1992 to 1996 was was only 55 cars instead of the planned volume of output of 250 cars per year.

Technical characteristics
Dimensions, mm - 5050x1800x1430
The body - sedan
Engines, gasoline, carburetor, V - shaped
number of cylinders - 8
working volume - 3.4 l
number of valves - 16
location - left
power, HP/kW - 170/125 at 5400 rpm
Gearbox : mechanical five-speed
Suspension is independent, spring-loaded
the drive wheels, rear
Brake - hydraulic, with vacuum booster and anti-lock braking system (ABS)
Electrical Equipment - 12 In
Tire size - 215/60R15
Maximum speed, km/h - 150


GAS-3105 had a few modifications. 
The first of them (3105) had the engine 3105 with the carburetor к114 and develop the capacity of 156 HP., a later modification had the carburetor Пирбург 4А1 (Solex 4A1) and developed the 170 HP. Modification with engine 3105, equipped with моновпрыском Lucas, had the index 31052 and also develop the capacity of 170 HP. There was also a modification to the engine 3105, equipped with distributed injection of fuel and microprocessor control system of the company Абит (Saint-Petersburg), the index of the engine changed for GAS-321.10, and model number was 31054. The last of the modifications, it was made by engineers of Gas have already after the termination of the production of cars, had the engine ZMZ-406 with the injection system, since it was necessary to collect the remaining cars for sale, as engines 3105 (GAS-321.10) GAS had ceased to produce.
On the basis of GAS-3105 later developed a model of the 3103 (front wheel drive) and 3104 (all wheel drive), are not included in the series, as well as two sports cars. Cars 3103, 3104 were presented at the Moscow motor show in 1998. 

Sources: 
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