Рassenger cars GAZ
Car Gas 12 ZIM
GAZ-12, until 1956 - GAS-M-12 «ZIM», sometimes referred to as « ZIM -12» - the Soviet of the six-seven-passenger car of a large class with a body «shestiokonny dlinnobazny sedan, serially produced at the Gorky Automobile Plant (Plant Named after Molotov) from 1950 to 1959 (some modifications to the year 1960.)
«Winters» - the first representative (representative) model of the Gorky automobile plant. The predecessor of «the Seagull» GAZ-13.
All were released 21 527 copies of all modifications.
The initial period of
The development was started in 1948, and was carried out in the short term - at her allotted 29 months. Designer - A. A. Липгарт, responsible artist-designer - lion Eremeev (the future author of the appearance GAS-M-21 «Win-II», «Volga» GAZ-21, ZIL-111 and «the Seagull» GAZ-13).
Comparison with foreign analogues
Dedicated team of GAS-and short time allowed or about copy a foreign model (which, in principle, and it was supposed initially - in particular, the plant urged Buick sample 1948 - machine attractive, but conservative and outdated, ascending design to pre-war models), or use an already existing practices and to design the car, the maximum based on the already mastered in the production of aggregates and technology. Constructors and designers have chosen the second way, although the significant influence of foreign (American) samples of the same class on the choice of stylistic decisions remained.
However, calling to one another in appearance, with a number of American models segment fine car (middle-upper class), «ZIM» was not a copy of any particular foreign car or in terms of the design, nor, in particular, from a technical aspect, in the latter the plant designers even managed to some extent «say a new word» in the framework of the world automobile industry.
For that to invest in the specified time, it was necessary to go one of 2 ways:
1 way - can be fully copy any similar foreign model. In particular, the plant urged the vehicle of American manufacturing under the trademark Buick.
2 way - was to create its own model, it was necessary to make maximum use of its components are available at the moment units. This, of course, in the first turn the engine.
Of course, in spite of powerful прессинги with moans of management - Ministry of automobile industry - the ball is selected 2 paths. In that decision, the main role was played by the persistence of the well-known designer Andrei Aleksandrovich Липгартова. And then the constructor were forced to go on a desperate step - they have applied for the future шестиместного of the car, which had the wheelbase to 3.2 meters bearing construction of the body - this body type had no analogues in the world practice. This they managed to reduce the weight of the car in comparison with other models of at least 220 kg.Technical features of the project
The main distinctive feature of the car was his body. He was made a sound, that is had no structurally separated frame. In the extremities of the body were fixed by welding and bolts of force elements, essentially similar frame (frame). Such a device of the body in General case gives some advantage in mass construction. Although for those years of carrying the body and was not a unique phenomenon, in cars of this class it was used then only rarely, and-on models with a wheelbase of comparable with the «ZIM»-om and with three rows of seats - in those years never met (and very seldom seen later). Thus, Gorky designers of the first in the world have created a car of this class with the monocoque body.
In choosing for the Winter of the bearing structure of the body played the role of several factors:
Firstly, the absence in the production program of the plant frame the desired geometry with experience and ready to experience in design of load-bearing elements of the body GAZ M-20 «Pobeda», which were used. At the first stage of the design as a «mule» (media units), the GAZ-M-12 acted «Victory» with a wheelbase of long, half a meter, by inserting in the middle of the body.
Secondly, the desire to reduce the weight of the vehicle, as it was planned to use six-cylinder GAS - 11. Maximum power reserves of the engine in the conditions of deficit of high-quality gasoline, acute ощущавшегося after the great Patriotic war, were fairly modest - the engine was originally designed for installation on vehicles of the middle class - GAS-M-11-73 (modernized GAS-M-1, produced in 1938-48 with a break in the years 1942-45) and шестицилиндровую«Victory» GAZ M-20 (in large series did not), and to boost its serial version of the more than 90 HP without loss of motor-resource of and with the use of available in those years in the USSR range of fuels, it was difficult.
Thirdly, this design was at the time of a progressive and would have shown in the best light level of the Soviet design school and industry.
However, the curious fact, that in the future the plant refused from the use of the carrier body for a car of this class. There are also certain problems with the rigidity and durability of the body M-12 under long-term operation.Because of the «ZIM» was intended for use in the representational purposes and as a taxi, the level of the roof was significantly higher than on conventional passenger cars of those years - it helped to create a very spacious at the height of the salon and to ensure the free boarding of passengers.
The second important feature of the car was the highest (in General up to 50 %) the degree of unification of units with already mastered the mass production and promising models of the plant - car «Victory», cargo GAZ-51, проектировавшимся in those same years, the GAZ-69 and others.
So, the engine was a modernized version of the engine GAS-11 the working volume of 3,5 liters. Power at the expense of the aluminum cylinder head, increasing the degree of compression, the lack of speed limiter, a new intake pipeline and two-chamber carburetor managed to raise up to 90 HP., which at the time was a good result (for comparison, in the United States from 3.9 liters of motor Ford V8 model 1949 filmed 100 h.p.).
Box transmission of the «ZIM»-and with the office of подрулевым lever at the same time with the production in manufacturing was established and the standard-type «Victory», and later - its modifications were used by very many Soviet cars.
The front suspension in the whole copied to design «Win», M-20 and was unified with her on a number of parts.
Clear evidence of the creative quest of engineering and design staff of the plant are the prototypes of the car.
The first model («mule», the bearer of units) for M-12 became «Victory»in the body of which was added полуметровая box, which helped to bring the wheelbase to the desired length (3 200 mm) and conduct full-scale tests received by the body for strength. This technique made it possible to considerably reduce the volume of complicated calculations in the design of the bearing structure of the body of the «ZIM» " and - and, consequently, reduce design time, as well as the work of technologists and manufacturers to introduce a new car, for the manufacture of which it became possible to apply the proven and well-adjusted technology, already used in the manufacture of bodies serial «Victories».
In 1949 appeared running prototypes, there were several variants. The design of the first of them were significantly different from those of future production vehicles: the sides of the body were smooth as a «Victory». However, for so long (5 530 mm) the back of the stylistic decision looked невыигрышно - sidewall is too monotonous, car significantly lost in the dynamism and elegance of form.
Therefore, subsequently, the design of the sides of the body was substantially revised - by analogy with the newest at the time of the American models she was given the complex form: preserving the pontoon as a constructive element, it is visually divided into two parts - the front part of the gradually narrowed in the area from the front wheel to the end of the back door, and for placement of the arches of the rear wheels on the sidewall were made broad выштамповки, imitating the individual rear wings (so-called «flaps»). It was a good decision and in combination with a handful of brilliant ornaments («molding») made it possible to visually break up the long side of the body, to give the car a beautiful proportions and more dynamic appearance, although deprived of the car of a certain share of the outer personality - the designer reception at that time belonged to a very common to foreign models.
In addition, the later prototypes of different cellular radiator grille, stylistically close to the models of the firm Cadillac sample of 1948. Earlier prototype had way радиаторную bars in the style of «Cadillacs» the obsolete model of 1946-47 years.On May 10, 1949 prototypes were shown in the Moscow Kremlin highest leadership of the country and received a generally positive assessment. And in summer of the next year vehicles can be seen at the exhibition «Automotive industry of the USSR» in Moscow.
Staging to production
In October 1950, was collected by the first industrial batch of GAS-12. In 1951, state tests were conducted three cars with a full load. The mileage of each vehicle was 21 072 km.
The car was produced until 1959, in the version with a body «sedan» and «sedan-taxi», in the version of the health of the car with a body «эмбюлэнс-hatchback» - up to 1960.
All were released 21527 machines.
Review of modifications:
GAZ-M-12A - taxi from the interior artificial leather. Due to the high cost - a-half times higher in comparison with the «Victory» - was released on a bit. GAS-12A mainly used as fixed-route taxis, including the long-distance lines.
GAZ-M-12B - ambulance version, produced from 1951 to 1960. The cars were painted in a light beige color, in addition, outwardly different from the usual sedan external hinged lid, which was disclosed on a large corner and allowed to roll-in the cabin of the litter.
Experienced and no serial
GAZ-M-12 with a body «Phaeton» - in 1949, there were made two pilot sample, but up to a batch production brought was not due to the difficulties in providing the required stiffness of the open carrier body.Review of design
Due to the compressed time frame for the design, from the very beginning the company was made on the high unification (up to 50 % of parts) with the rest of the car GAS - car «Victory» and a truck GAZ-51.
Considerations fuel economy, observance of the established type of Russian-made cars («Victory» - four cylinder, «ZIS» eight, " which is between them the machine according to the logic was to be шестицилиндровой) and the production of a good six-cylinder contract engine GAS-11 forced designers to use six-cylinder engine, although a more appropriate to the size and weight of the car was designed to eight-cylinder.
The engine was in General constructively similar to the GAS-11, which was used on GAZ - 51, but had a higher degree of compression (6, 7 - gasoline with an octane number 70-72), aluminum cylinder head and dual carburetor. In the engine of the «ZIM» was removed the main drawback of engines GAZ-51 - the output of the failure of the connecting rod inserts at high speeds, through the installation of symmetric crank arm.
The engine of the «Victory», in turn, represented a четырехцилиндровую version of the same engine GAS-11, but with reduced from 110 to 100 mm piston stroke (the first step on the path to a Wheeler-dealer "square" cross-section, the achieved later on ZMZ-21 "Volga"). Thus, all cars GAZ those years were almost completely unified on spare parts, engines, excellent addition to the equipment of practically only by the number of cylinders. Of course, this unification significantly improved the operation, maintenance and repair of vehicles.
The modifications to the engine of the «ZIM» were used subsequently by bus PAZ-652
B, crawler jeep GAZ-47 and wheeled armored personnel carrier BTR-60П (-60ПБ), which was used tandem unit (two heavy motor of the «ZIM»).
For the «ZIM» -and has developed a new gearbox for the first time in the history of the plant had synchronizers (in II and III (transfers) and shift lever, located on the steering column - this was the American fashion.
Since the year 1950, the new gearbox and began to put on the «Winning», in addition, the later variants of it were used on automobiles GAZ-21, GAS-22, GAZ-69, RAF-977, ЕрАЗ-762 and others. This ensures the highest degree of unification of parts and greatly facilitated the maintenance of cars, and a huge margin of safety, incorporated in the design of this unit, designed initially for a six-cylinder engine with high torque, provided the cat a great resource when you work in a pair with четырехцилиндровыми engines.Original constructive solution, applied in GAS-M-12 and has no analogues in domestic car production was a hydraulic coupling unit transmission, located between the engine and the clutch, and which represented the Carter filled with a special oil, in which revolved not connected with each other mechanically two rotor in the form of half of the toroid, separated by the shoulders at 48 compartments (pump rotor, playing the role of a flywheel) and 44 compartment (turbine rotor, to him was lightened flywheel and standard friction). Between the inner edges of the rotors there was a small gap.
When operating the engine cranked the wheel pumping, which is created in the crankcase of the fluid motion, leading to the rotation of the turbine wheel, when this allowed their mutual slippage. Took the place of the loss of energy in the low frequency of rotation were practically invisible, because the maximum speed нижнеклапанного engine «Winters»-and were only 3600 rpmmin.
A hydraulic coupling was not the analogue automatic transmission, in those times have already appeared in America, and not increasing the torque, like a torque Converter; but she gave the car a lot of operational benefits.
«ZIM» could start with any transfer of the three - works instruction recommended to start with the second transfer, and the first to use only in heavy road conditions and on the slopes. Elasticity when driving on a straight-third gear was just amazing. The car moved smoothly and without any breakthrough. «ZIM» can be slow to a stop, turning off the transfer, after which start a movement could be, simply releasing the brake and pressing on the accelerator - a hydraulic coupling is not formed the rigid connection between the transmission and the engine, not giving the engine stall in stop - rotors hydraulic clutch started to slip relative to each other (pumping rotating the engine and turbine was secured with together with transmission), playing, thus, the role of the second, automatic clutch.
Unlike appeared on the «Volga» GAZ-21 automatic transmission on the basis of the Converter, a hydraulic coupling does not require any special maintenance scarce and lubricants, and the resource it was practically unlimited.
Besides the advantages, the transmission unit reported a car, and some drawbacks. The main thing was the fact that to keep the car on the spot when stopping on the slope can be used only when the Parking brake - without this, even when the transfer of the «ZIM» easy began to roll. This make high requirements for the technical condition of the manual brake, and in the frost parking brake applied for a long time could lead to примораживанию brake pads to the drums. A more effective way to keep your car on the spot was the use of prisms-dogs - were attached to each car. For the sake of justice it should be noted that this shortcoming was typical for many of the early automatic transmission, did not have the position «P» («Park», «Parking»).Subsequently, a hydraulic coupling was used for quarry dump truck MAZ-525.
For the first time in the industry for GAS-M-12 was used гипоидный rear axle with неразрезным Carter, in conjunction with the constructed driveshaft has allowed greatly reduce the level of the floor and almost to remove the tunnel to the drive shaft, as well as significantly reduce the noise level from the main couples of the bridge by comparison with the bevel gear GAZ M-20.
Were in this decision and cons - гипоидный rear axle fails after a few minutes of work on a standard transmission oil, as it requires a special, quite rare then, гипоидное, in view of the fact that the peculiarities of the work of hypoid gears require very high-EP oil characteristics; increased the number of lubrication points due to the introduction of additional angle of the PTO shaft, complicated its balancing.
Independent spring шкворневая the front suspension was made on the type of suspension GAZ M-20 (in turn, performed on the type of Opel Kapitän model 1938) and is not fundamentally different from her. The rear suspension was different from the «Victory» also only in details. Shock absorbers were still lever.
Steering trapeze was developed anew while preserving the overall scheme.
Among the new products have also been: 15-inch wheel rims and brake with two leading blocks, shaped rear window (front left of the V-shaped), oil radiator in the engine lubrication system, half of flange type, and so on.
Analysis of design
Special mention deserves the car design. Him in the development of special attention. Compared with rustic «Victory», with a minimum of chrome decor and generalized forms of «ZIM» pleasantly surprised by its elegant lines, the luxurious стайлингом in the American style, attention to detail (which determine the overall perception of the vehicle), the abundance of chromium in the finishing, as the exterior, and the interior.The car was painted with the best available for the Gas-And the quality нитроэмалями in 7 layers with manual polishing of each. Colors was not rich: cars painted mostly in black, rarely white and dark green color. Taxi usually had gray, the «first aid» - the color of the «ivory». The exports were also cherry, green and grey cars, as well as two-tone combination. For China was performed party of cars popular there blue, traditionally a symbol of good fortune and success.
Tyres with white walls were bought in the United States and is installed only on the exhibition samples.
The car looked to 1950 quite in the framework of the automobile fashion, outwardly, in common with many American models of middle-upper class, and surpassed the novelty of the design of American cars individual brands, as well as the major part of products of European firms (which was mainly developed even before the Second World War).
Subsequently, the appearance of the car has become quite quickly become outdated, especially items such as the V-shaped windshield or rear lighting. In 1955 model year, American design sharply, in leaps and bounds ahead, and the body, developed approximately in the same time with the «ZIM»-om and stylistically similar him, were widely removed from production.
In this part of the aggregate could be considered as obsolete in the early 1950s, as нижнеклапанный engine and manual gearbox for vehicles of such class of rapidly supplanted верхнеклапанными engines and automatic gearboxes.
By the end of its release in 1959 (base sedan), «ZIM» managed to finally be out of date and technically, and outwardly. Ambulances on its base with a body «эмбюлэнс-hatchback» issued prior to 1960.
The equipment of the body
The vehicle of the «ZIM» has been equipped and decorated with the best available on the production model of Gas-And the intensity and quality.
Finished he was quite well, though without much luxury, pretty simple materials - used-colored «under the tree» and chrome-plated metal, cloth (thick woolen cloth type шинельного cloth) muted shades of gray, beige, pale green, purple; plastic «under the ivory». All metal parts are coated with a decorative coating, quite realistically simulating the lacquered wooden panels. The abundance of chrome-plated elements and a clear plastic «under the ivory» gave the salon of a vehicle of this class atmosphere of luxury and finish «under the tree», dense carpets on the floor and upholstery fabrics - home comfort; however, the options are decorated with a higher class of the «ZIM» «there is definitely not enough.Standard equipment was the tri-band radio with high-order time-sensitive (шестиламповыйsuper heterodyne). However, he had and disadvantages of - the large consumption of electricity. Use the receiver for 2-3 hours when the engine has led to a complete discharge of the battery (actually, the characteristic lack of all of lamp car radios). Driver's seat (sofa) was rigidly fixed to the spot and rested on the cross of the body, further his укреплявшие - this partition in the back of the truck was not, that does not allow calling his limousine. The place behind the wheel was not very much. But the passenger compartment was very spacious - comparable in scope with limousine ZIS-110 top class and contained Seating for five people - three of them in the back of the sofa, two in the jump-seats - «страпонтенах», убиравшихся in the back of the front seat. Taxi and «first aid» have, as a rule, simple decoration with painted metal panels in body color and дерматиновой upholstery, on the most part of cars taxi-the taxi meter installed.
The high ceiling and large width did salon «ZIM»-a very large, spacious and comfortable. Especially convenient was the back seat, designed for comfortable, loose landing three passengers. The rear doors were opened in the course of movement, which in combination with high doorways and the back of the sofa, almost completely passed back to the door openings, making entry and exit of passengers is very convenient.
The interior of the car had many luxurious, by the standards of those years, the elements of a heating and ventilation to the rear of the vehicle in addition to the front, with a separate fan, rheostat which was in the back, for convenience of passengers; broad armrests for rear passengers, four ashtrays, soft rail in the back of the back of the sofa and on the sides, additional light, separate the cigarette lighter in the passenger compartment and so on.
In contrast to the foot of mechanical inclusion starter on «Victory», button-pusher which was located above the gas pedal, GAS-M-12 engine drove electric drive - from the button located on the left of the instrument panel.
Projects of modernization
In 1956, already in the works to «Chaika» GAZ-13, there was developed a project of modernization of the «ZIM», «and under the name of «Winter-12V». Changes in the design supposed to be a mostly cosmetic - flush windshield, more elegant rims headlights, tinted the color of the body, more generalized checkered grille, other caps, moldings on the sidewall, a revised clearance tailgate and so on. However, it was planned to increase the power of the engine, to improve the car's braking properties and introduce automatic transmission of «Volga».However, it soon became clear that the style of the car hopelessly out of date, external modernization significantly modernize it will not be able to, and spending resources for the modernization of when to start production of a new model was only a few years, it was considered inappropriate.
In 1956, a 1-St Moscow taxis received 300 cars ZIM. They are operated in Moscow until 1960. Winter-taxi, as a rule, was black with a belt of white shashechek.
The car of the «ZIM» was the most democratic of all the Soviet car of a large class: in contrast to those who followed him «Seagull», he is massively used in taxis and ambulances, sold to the population.
The price of the car was before the reform of 1961 40 000 RUB., a fortune in the average wage, with the luxury of «Victory» has cost 16 000 rubles. (later than 25 000 RUB.), and «Moskvich-400» - 9 000 RUB. (later 11 000 RUB.). So, queues for the «ZIM»-AMI will simply not there, and their main customers were the Soviet scientific and creative elite of those who directly personal car is not trusted. Nevertheless, such «private» cars managed often personal drivers, maintained and kept in public garages.
Already in the early seventies, after the mass write-off of the «ZIM»s the government and the taxi they bought the members of the private sector as a normal machine. The price of natural GAS-12 does not exceed the value of «Zhiguli». The owners often use these vehicles for the transport of loads, for example, the potato. It was at this time a large part of the remaining GAS-M-12 lost its historical equipment, acquired an alien transmission units, engines of trucks and so forth, that makes complete GAS-M-12 in the original, factory equipment is very rare car and quite desirable godsend for the collector.
At the present time the price for the recovered copies of the car can reach up to 3 500 000 Russian rubles.
Cars of the «ZIM» were exported mainly to the countries of the socialist camp, as well as in a number of capitalist countries, for example, Finland, Sweden (the mention of the «ZIM»-e on the streets of Stockholm is available in one of the detectives of the Swedish writer Pen Valle).
On the basis of units of the «ZIM», and the built racing cars of the series «avant-garde».
Even in the period of functioning of the production produced a maximum of 6 cars «ZIM» in the day. Just over a ten-year period from the years 1950-1960 was released about 21 000 units.
Аллигаторный the hood of a GAS-M-12 giving thanks to the special design of loops opened to the left and to the right; it was possible even simply withdraw.
In spite of the enormous dimensions of the car, the driver's seat different overcrowded because of the desire to release a place for official passenger.
The machine could budge on any of the three gear transmission (in this case in the operating instructions of the even was separately registered a categorical prohibition budge on the direct transfer). Over time, the гидромуфте opened flow due to wear, corrugated copper seals with graphite rings. The repair was very difficult - the corrugated packing was in the discharge of large fiscal deficits. An Owner Of N. Farafonov from Alma-ATA invented and complete elimination of this problem - instead of turbine oil in гидромуфту pumped lube syringe of 6.5 kilogram of refractory grease (Литол24) node reliable and durable work even if defective seal. On the work of the hydraulic clutch this does not affect, except that in the winter falls a little smoother.
The design of the GAS-M-12 focus is on the process of the development of so much attention, that Andrey Липгарт temporarily moved his job in the group of artists-designers; it should be noted that the success of this approach was the full - even today the style of the «ZIM»-and looks very impressive.
Radiator grille GAS-M-12 at first glance looks similar to the lattice of Cadillac’s 1948 model year; in fact, it looks like only superficially (forms and number of cells), but has a different design, different proportions, and when comparing creates a different impression on the front of the machine.
Red «crest» on the hood of a GAS-M-12 had a decorative backlight which included a night.
Graphics linking sections of the body in the drawings gave a surface which gave the right - smooth and without any kinks in the light layers - glare, additionally, the effect has been improved with the help of experiments on models, illumined different sources of light; paint developed in such a way the body in modern paint - «Metallic», fundamentally do not give the correct highlight, technical and barbarism; the same applies to almost all cars of the 1940-ies and 50-ies, the surface of the body which was calculated on неметалликовые paint, but a clear right flare is an essential part of the visual perception of the car.
The smooth contours of the body was not easy, mating surfaces on the conveyor helped alloy brazing, and then drove putty. According to some data on every body was laid to 4 kg of tin. Therefore, when body repair works had to put the container for draining, molten welds electric welding tin.
Some car refinish enterprises (especially in the Baltic States) in the 60's were built cargo pick-UPS on the basis of the ZIM, presumably their capacity could be up to 750 kg and perhaps more. In addition in Riga, in 1971, was made a hearse, by turning the ZIM in the truck.
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