Рassenger cars GAZ
The car GAZ-14 «Chaika»
GAZ-14 «Chaika» - a Soviet representative passenger автомобильбольшого class, manual assembling at the Gorky automobile plant c1977 to 1988.
All it has been made about 1120 cars of this model.
History of creation
A clear orientation of the creators of «the Seagull» GAZ-13 on the versatile American automobile fashion the mid-1950s made its design very quickly obsolete. Already in 1957-1958 model years created in the framework of the same areas of the body in the United States were discontinued and replaced by a more difficult and extravagantly decorated. In the beginning of the 1960s around the world occurred in the course of a more rapid transition to a fundamentally new style, more stringent and angular, like the one that was later used by the creators of «Volga» GAZ-24.
As a result, already by the beginning of the sixties, it would seem, has just launched the production of «the Seagull» on the background of the majority of foreign samples externally perceived outdated. The more that developed in 1961, the upgraded version, decorated in the spirit of more modern American cars 1957-1959 model years, in a series of never went. Most notable of these was on the background of a higher class car ZIL-111, the appearance of which was updated in 1963 and more or less fit the stylistic tendencies of the beginning of 60-ies.
The beginning of work on the project of a new car of a large class of Gas refers to the second half of the decade, since 1967.
In 1968, there was already a full-size mockup of future «the Seagull» of the second generation, the appearance of which clearly went up to a generalized image of the high-class American car of those years, however, not copying directly any particular model or their group. The project was approved by the prototyping Commission in 1969, after which have started the manufacture of prototypes.
Unfortunately, due to a number of reasons the way of a new model to the production was very long.
The first series of the prototype was built on the basis of the chassis GAS-13 (designer - lion Eremeev). However, the creators of the car did not satisfy their aesthetic and technical qualities. The combination of low lines of a roof and forcefully high because of the dimensions of the engine hood violated the visual aspect ratio, and the decreasing together with a roof seat demanded extending the wheelbase to maintain a sufficient space for the feet of passengers. It was required more serious changes in the layout.
In 1971, was built of a running prototype of the second series. He had changed chassis with increased to 200 mm wheel base and a lower engine. The external shape of the vehicle created Stanislav Volkov, a graduate of art school of industrial them. In. And. Mukhina, subsequently worked on the design of the family «Gazel».
Subsequently, up to the mid-1970s, was built several prototypes. They had different variants of registration, gradually approaching that which was subsequently selected for the production model.In 1975 предсерийные specimens have been tested in a wide variety of road conditions, including extreme, on the roads of the Crimea and Caucasus, and in the next, 1976, after the rectification of identified deficiencies, the same route were already state acceptance testing, as a result of which the car was recommended to manufacturing.
In 1977, was released the first industrial party, but the first car of cherry red collected as a «labour gift» even at the end of 1976, on the occasion of the birthday of L. And. Brezhnev (celebrated on December 19).
Thus, between the beginning of works on the new «Seagull» and the start of its production has been more than ten years.
Nevertheless, even at the moment of the beginning of its release the car looked in the framework of its stylistic direction quite modern, than he was obliged to a protracted crisis of the American automobile industry of the 1970s, when the updated model ranges slowed in many times, and the development of the design has practically stopped.
Moreover, in the USA is roughly comparable to the class with the «Chaika» frame «full-size» cars produced in having a similar appearance bodies up to the end of the eighties and mid-nineties, in particular: «Cadillac Fleetwood» and «Cadillac Брогэм» - until 1992, «Lincoln Таункар» - up to 1989, the «Олдсмобиль 88» - up to 1985, the Chevrolet Caprice» - up to 1990, «Ford LTD crown Victoria» and «mercury Grand Marquis» - until 1991. Subsequently, most of the above models were subjected to restyling, заключавшемуся mainly in the replacement of the body to a more modern and aerodynamic, and release the information: company «General motors» - until the second half of the nineties, «Ford Motor» - are made up to the present time, though much improved form.
From a technical point of view the car, in fact, was deeply modernized version of its predecessor, GAZ-13. The new model was significantly bigger, and, in fact, the «left» in a higher division, came close to the dimensions, technical characteristics and the levels of comfort and equipment to the models of Trucks of higher class.
In comparison with GAS-13, vehicle height has been reduced by 95 mm. Accordingly reduced centre of gravity, reduced aerodynamic resistance, improved driving stability at high speeds.The frame was left X-shape, as the previous model, but the wheelbase has been lengthened to 200 mm, to offset the reduction in the height of the vehicle and less vertical landing of the driver and passengers, accounting for now 3450 mm. Increased accordingly and the total length of the car.
The engine remained in the basis of the same, and that the GAS-13, but due to the timing of the new intake and exhaust manifolds, introduction of the system of power supply with two carburetors and other measures, the maximum capacity of up to 195 up to 220 HP., that significantly improved the dynamics of - a quarter decreased time of acceleration up to 100 km /h, increased the maximum speed. Also, according to some unconfirmed reports, in order to lower the hood line was slightly increased the collapse of the cylinder block. To reduce the noise of gas-distribution system, reduce maintenance and increase of stability of work of the engine valve tappets were made hydraulic. Crankshaft is steel to supply the torsional vibration damper, which reduced the level of vibrations. There was more reliable and providing greater stability of work of the engine at high speed electronic ignition system, and to ensure maximum reliability of its elements were duplicated.
Automatic gearbox in General inherited from the model of the predecessor, but have been modified gear ratios its planetary part, and the most noticeable difference was the location of the selector modes automatic - if the GAZ-13 it was touch-and was located on the left of the instrument panel, the GAZ-14 was introduced a more modern floor in the form of a lever.
The front suspension has retained only a General scheme and has been completely changed - instead of pin and threaded bushing in it appeared ball joints and rubber-metal joints (silent blocks). Improved was and rear leaf dependent suspension. All this has allowed improving the comfort of a vehicle, to enhance its performance.
The brakes were also upgraded and fully correspond to the requirements of those years. Ahead appeared massive ventilated disc mechanisms. The brake system has two circuits; each of them acted on two fronts and one rear wheel, and each had their own гидровакуумный amplifier, which was used in addition to one Central vacuum amplifier (cascade scheme). The GAS 14 applied disc brake system with internally ventilated and two stages of strengthening of the British company «Гирлинг». Amplifiers of three: one vacuum, the other two - гидровакуумные. The braking system is duplicated - there are two independent circuits.
The Parking brake was transferred to the output shaft of the gearbox to the rear wheel and drive it was now not the lever under the instrument panel, and special foot педалькой.In the new model was a real breakthrough - it is in the level of sophistication of the interior and use of all kinds of servo drives.
The car was very richly equipped with various devices that increase the comfort for the driver and passengers. To their services are very complex system of ventilation and heating with two separate отопителями, Electromechanical drive damper air intakes and a built-in air-conditioning, which provided the individual microclimate in the front and the rear seat, power Windows, so the car was equipped with a stereo FM radio extra class «radio engineering» with a prefix «Wilma» (Riga radio plant), in the left rear armrest of the sofa set remote control the radio, which had the priority right on. Central locking, four ashtrays. Some cars have built-in radio «Altai» or satellite «Caucasus».
Bent athermancy side of the glass with a light blue-green tinted Windows did not pass in the salon of the ultraviolet radiation. The rear window and some of the side had heated. There was a headlamp cleaning system jet type.
All in the car was 17 electric motors of different power.
Acoustic comfort thanks to a powerful noise insulation and special configuration of units was also at the level of» - according to the press of those years, under the uniform motion of the level of noise in the cabin does not exceed 73 dB.
Great attention was paid to safety. In the car there were three point seat belts, power belt in the doorway, soft padding of the interior, rear fog lamps, and other elements of passive and active safety.
New design solutions made it possible to significantly reduce the amount of maintenance service and reduce its complexity. This бесшкворневая suspension and hydraulic lifters valves and electronic ignition, and many other units and aggregates, not demanding adjustment and maintenance in the course of normal operation. Thus, the number of lubricants operations on the 1000 km decreased in comparison with GAS-13 in 6 times.
Basic dimensions, mm:
length ............ 6114
the height of 1525 ............
base. ............ 3450
the number of seats.............. 7
Loaded weight, kg ... 2590
Maximum speed, km/h ...... 175
Time of acceleration up to a speed of 100 km/h. ... 15
Trial fuel consumption, l/100 km . . . 16
Motor gasoline, V-shaped eight-cylinder; working volume, l ........... 5, 5The degree of compression. ........... 8, 5
Power, h.p. ........... 220
Maximum torque, kgf m. . . . 46
Road clearance, mm 180........
Minimum turning radius, m ...... 7,5
Bus ............. 9,35-15
Chronology of the issue
In 1977, was launched serial production of the car, but, of course, neither mass, nor the conveyor-belt-it was not.
The Assembly of «the Seagull» was carried out by forces located on the territory of the Gas ПАМСа (car Production of small series), Brigadier method, manually on the berth. So gathered about a hundred cars a year. The build process was very complex and includes several consecutive assemblies and clashes of the car.
Data for each of the participating in the Assembly of experts and individual characteristics of the vehicle and individual units are made in a special travel document. Each collected the car passed the obligatory acceptance tests on hundreds of kilometers.
Small-batch production of «the Seagull» continued for 11 years until 1988. Since 1985, the car has received index 1402 and several improvements, in particular seat, which previously was not regulated by the angle of the backrest, now installed from GAZ 3102 with a wider range of adjustment of the lumbar support backrest. As has been improved cooling system of the engine.
In 1988, in the framework of the so-called «fight with the privileges of the»the car was discontinued on the personal instructions of M. With. Gorbachev, and at the same time was destroyed by the whole technological equipment, technical documentation, Assembly lines, the body dies, and so forth (even rigging for production of large-scale toy car model, also released on the Gas).
As a result of this rash, forcible decision was destroyed together with the whole production complex a unique car with a high technical level, at that time practically not inferior to foreign analogues and having a great growth potential. In the production of the same are submitted by already outdated even by the standards of the mid-seventies «Volga» GAZ-24 and its modernized version - " GAZ-3102".
Total for the period from 1976 to 1989 were collected 1 120 cars GAZ-14 all modifications. The last car was collected 24 December 1988 and left the plant in January 1989. The following недособранная car that had been on the rack, had been destroyed.
In the mid-nineties the manual Gas shaping the plans to resume production of «the Seagull». However, it turned out that almost no documentation or industrial equipment at the plant is not preserved, and the development of a vehicle of this class «from scratch» was the plant not under force and not economically feasible.
In 2008, the car was given the status of an object of cultural and technical heritage of the USSR.Overview of the modifications
In addition to the base of the GAZ-14, the plant produced modification of the GAS-14-05 - parade Phaeton. From 1982 to 1988, they were released 15 copies, and the first one is kept in the Museum of «GAZ».
The Phaeton had locally reinforced bearing system of the body. Instead of a full-fledged кабриолетного mechanism of lifting of the side Windows and cleaned electro-hydraulic drive of the tent, typical for GAS-13Б, he had the glass only on the front doors and simple tent, manually adjustable over the front seat. He served only to preventive обкаток in the vehicle storage. As additional equipment, he had a MIC stand for the system speakerphone and flagpoles. According to the available information, one of the carriages was given by Fidel Castro.
Medical vehicles on the basis of the GAZ-14 steel produced at RAF-e, already after the termination of the issue of «the Seagull» GAZ-13. It is noteworthy that the new machine has received index already by the new standard - RAF-3920. Such cars have been manufactured a total of five copies, with one of them, dressed in white, was sent to Cuba for the Government of Fidel Castro. The rest of the cars were painted in black color.
«The Seagull»-sedans from Gorky dismantling and cutting, at the same time preparing sketches of the wagon. Participated in the work of the famous engineer Эйсерт - head of the group, which created the avant-garde for its time RAF-2203. Responsible for the order of the chief of Bureau of special vehicles Juries Пенцис. At first, molded from clay high roof, but later on such a serious alteration of the body refused. Spare wheel removed in a niche in the left rear door. Over her in the cabin set the table, beside the stretcher took two places for personnel, installed the lockers. The rest of the filling cars were already in Moscow. Of course, no sanitary symbols of red crosses, inscriptions on the machines were not.
By the end of the 1980s, it became clear that Soviet cars of a high class are clearly inferior to foreign analogues, and not only in the aesthetic sense, but also technically. It is with such motivation and work began ЗАМСа on a new «Chaika». Model has a factory index-GAS-14-07.Was conducted a small update, the car has received имитированную under the " GAZ-3102 " radiator grille, and the new plastic glasses for the front headlights. In the rest of the appearance of a limousine no not undergone changes.
However, in technical terms, the new car is significantly better than his ancestor. The car set the first Soviet climate control «Vesna». Now, not only heating and air conditioning serviced the entire volume of the passenger compartment. Push-button control unit with display allowed to ask a variety of settings circulation forms and air temperature in the passenger compartment. There was the same staff thermometer temperature of the air outside. Was improved and radio «the Seagull». Now stereo receiver Vilma was not hiding in the side of the glove compartment, and is aligned with the radio Unitra issued by the RHL. By the way, the first priority of the audio control of the rear seat was handed over to the driver. Seat equipped elektroregulirovkami with memory for 2 persons, as well as a built-in heating. In addition, electro was replenished with electric adjustment of the mirrors and электрошторками. Comfort of the driver has been improved height-adjustable steering column. The layout of the car has not changed, but because of the lack of rear air conditioner, a huge trunk of «the Seagull» has been expanded.
The engine of the new «the Seagull» was developed, added another one candle for each cylinder, which entailed the increase in the number of valves up to 32. The car engine, for the first time in the USSR there are two injector IP-52. As a result of these modifications the engine power increased from 220 HP up to 485 HP.
In pair with this engine worked as the new 5-speed automatic transmission developed in MADI specially for «the Seagull». Was introduced manual and forced mode of the increase or decrease of transmission. As the maximum speed was increased to 240 km/h, the двухконтурную brake system complemented rear disc brakes.
Despite the excellent performance, the car didn't go to the series, in connection with the resolution M. With. Gorbachev on the withdrawal car «Chaika» with production.
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